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account form
The form of balance sheet that resembles the basic format of the accounting equation, with assets on the left side and the liabilities and owner’s equity sections on the right side.
account payable
The liability created by a purchase on account.
account receivable
A claim against the customer created by selling merchandise or services on credit.
accounting
An information system that provides reports to stakeholders about the economic activities and condition of a business.
accounting equation
Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
assets
The resources owned by a business.
balance sheet
A list of the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date, usually at the close of the last day of a month or a year.
business
An organization in which basic resources (inputs), such as materials and labor, are assembled and processed to provide goods or services (outputs) to customers.
business entity concept
A concept of accounting that limits the economic data in the accounting system to data related directly to the activities of the business.
business stakeholder
A person or entity who has an interest in the economic performance of a business.
business transaction
An economic event or condition that directly changes an entity’s financial condition or directly affects its results of operations.
capital stock
The portion of a corporation’s owners’ equity contributed by investors (owners) in exchange for shares of stock.
Certified Management Accountant (CMA)
A private accountant employed by companies, government, and not-for-profit entities, requiring a college degree, two years of experience, and successful completion of a two-day examination.
Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
Public accountants who have met a state’s education, experience, and examination requirements.
corporation
A business organized under state or federal statutes as a separate legal entity.
cost concept
A concept of accounting that determines the amount initially entered into the accounting records for purchases.
dividends
Distributions to the owners (stockholders) of a corporation.
ethics
Moral principles that guide the conduct of individuals.
expenses
Assets used up or services consumed in the process of generating revenues.
fees earned
Revenue from providing services.
financial accounting
The branch of accounting that is concerned with recording transactions using generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for a business or other economic unit and with a periodic preparation of various statements from such records.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
The authoritative body that has the primary responsibility for developing accounting principles.
financial statements
Financial reports that summarize the effects of events on a business.
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)
Generally accepted guidelines for the preparation of financial statements.
income statement
A summary of the revenue and expenses for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year.
interest revenue
Money received for interest.
liabilities
The rights of creditors that represent debts of the business.
limited liability company (LLC)
A business form consisting of one or more persons or entities filing an operating agreement with a state to conduct business with limited liability to the owners, yet treated as a partnership for tax purposes.
management (or managerial) accounting
The branch of accounting that uses both historical and estimated data in providing information that management uses in conducting daily operations, in planning future operations, and in developing overall business strategies.
manufacturing business
A type of business that changes basic inputs into products that are sold to individual customers.
matching concept (or matching principle)
A concept of accounting in which expenses are matched with the revenue generated during a period by those expenses.
merchandising business
A type of business that purchases products from other businesses and sells them to customers.
net income
or net profit The amount by which revenues exceed expenses.
net loss
The amount by which expenses exceed revenues.
objectivity concept
A concept of accounting that requires accounting records and the data reported in financial statements be based on objective evidence.
owner’s equity
The owner’s right to the assets of the business.
partnership
An unincorporated business form consisting of two or more persons conducting business as co-owners for profit.
prepaid expenses
Items such as supplies that will be used in the business in the future. Also see deferred expenses.
private accounting
The field of accounting whereby accountants are employed by a business firm or a not-for-profit organization.
profit
The difference between the amounts received from customers for goods or services provided and the amounts paid for the inputs used to provide the goods or services.
proprietorship
A business owned by one individual.
public accounting
The field of accounting where accountants and their staff provide services on a fee basis.
rent revenue
Money received for rent.
report form
The form of balance sheet with the liabilities and owner’s equity sections presented below the assets section.
retained earnings
Net income retained in a corporation.
retained earnings statement
A summary of the changes in the retained earnings in a corporation for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year.
revenues
Increases in owner’s equity as a result of selling services or products to customers.
sales
The total amount charged customers for merchandise sold, including cash sales and sales on account.
service business
A business providing services rather than products to customers.
statement of cash flows
A summary of the cash receipts and cash payments for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year.
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