Cloned from: Ap psychology CH. 4



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accommodation
In Piaget's theory, the act of altering a previously-existing schema in response to new information.
assessment
a method of obtaining information about a person's intellectual functioning or personality characteristics, using any combination of interviews, questionnaires, specialized instruments, and observations.
assimilation

In Piaget's theory, the act of incorporating new information into a previously-existing schema without having to alter the schema.
anal stage

The second of Freud's psychosexual stages, ages 1-3 years, in which the anus is described as the primary site for satisfaction and enjoyment for the child.
attachment

a strong and enduring emotional bond.
authoritarian:

One of Baumrind's styles of parenting, characterized by a low amount of responsiveness and a high amount of control.
authoritative:

One of Baumrind's styles of parenting, characterized by a high amount of responsiveness and moderate amount of control. Authoritative parenting is associated with better child adjustment than the other three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved).
autonomous morality:

In Piaget's theory of moral development, autonomous morality is rational morality that is based on moral principles, rather than obedience to authority in moral matters.
Bell Curve:

also called the normal curve. Many traits, including intellectual abilities, are said to be normally distributed, with roughly 68% of the distribution being within one standard deviation of the mean, and more than 90% being within two standard deviations of the mean.
Big Five Theory (OCEAN):

a trait theory of personality which holds that personality is composed of five dimensions: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
concrete operations:

the stage in Piaget's theory that lasts from ages 7-11. In this stage, children can use logical reasoning about concrete objects, but they lack the ability for abstract thought.
congruence:

genuineness or authenticity. According to Rogers' person-centered approach to therapy, congruence is one of three key requirements for a therapist to be successful. The others are accurate empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard.
conservation:

according to Piaget's theory, conservation is the ability to recognize that essential qualities of things (such as amount) don't change, even with superficial changes in appearance. Being able to complete conservation tasks was a sign that the child had moved from the preoperational stage of development to the concrete operational stage.
contact comfort:

comfort provided by the sense of touch and closeness. According to Harlow's studies with monkeys, baby monkeys are more likely to cling to a cloth-covered wire replica of a "mother" than to an uncovered wire "mother" that provided food.
conventional morality:

Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, in which moral decisions tend to be made on the basis of social norms or laws.
crisis:

In Erikson's psychosocial theory, each of eight stages in a person's psychosocial development involves a crisis that needs to be resolved. If it is resolved appropriately, the person is better able to cope with the demands of the next stage. If it is not resolved appropriately, the person moves onto the next stage, but with "baggage" from the poorly-resolved crisis.
crystallized intelligence:

mental ability that includes material learned over the entire life span, such as vocabulary and general knowledge of the world.
defense mechanism:

in Freud's theory, defense mechanisms distorted reality when the ego was threatened by anxiety. Defense mechanisms include repression, projection, and many others.
ego:

according to Freud's theory, the portion of the personality that mediates among the desires of the id, the moral control of the superego, and the demands of the environment. It is largely conscious, and operates according to the reality principle.
egocentrism:

inability to see things from another's perspective. According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage exhibited egocentrism in their thinking.
Electra complex:

According to Freud's theory, the Electra complex took place in girls during the phallic psychosexual stage. It involves the girl's sexual attraction to her father, and her desire to replace her mother in her father's affections.
Flynn effect:

the trend that IQ scores tend to rise by an average of 3 points per decade, although different areas of the world vary in the magnitude of the gains.
fluid intelligence:

the intellectual ability that involves succeeding on new tasks, or taking previous knowledge and applying it in a new way.
forced choice:

a method of item construction on a questionnaire, in which the respondent is required to choose one among a group of alternatives.
formal operations:

Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development, from 11 years of age through the life span. The formal operations stage involves the capability for abstract thought, and the application of logical reasoning processes to abstract ideas.
"g":

the general intelligence factor, as proposed by Spearman, who argued that seemingly diverse abilities are nevertheless related to a single general intelligence factor.
gender:

the persistent sense of one's self as male or female.
gender role:

the culturally-based expectations for "male" versus "female" behavior.
genital stage:

Freud's fifth psychosexual stage, from age 11 through adulthood. According to Freud, the genital stage was marked by heterosexuality and adult-like sexual interest.
heritability:

the degree to which variability in a characteristic, such as intellectual ability or a personality trait, can be explained by heredity.
heteronymous morality:

according to Piaget, children first develop this type of morality, in which moral decisions are made according to obedience to authority, and the rules of morality are seen as inflexible and unchanging. Later, they are said to develop autonomous morality.
humanistic:

a movement in psychology that was characterized by a deep concern for human beings, their dignity, and their universal struggles. Maslow and Rogers were two key figures in this movement.
hypothetico-deductive reasoning:

according to Piaget, formal operational thought involves this level of reasoning, in which the adolescent can systematically test out possibilities to solve problems, much as a scientist would.
id:

in Freud's theory, the portion of the personality that contains our instincts and our irrational desires. It is largely unconscious and very demanding. It lives according to the pleasure principle, which is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
imaginary audience:

the adolescent's belief that his or her life is being scrutinized by and is of intense concern to other people.
imprinting:

quick learning that occurs within a sensitive period of the organism's development and without obvious reinforcement for the learned behavior.
intelligence:

general mental ability; the ability to acquire information, and to apply that information in order to understand the world.
IQ:

a numerical index of intelligence as measured by any of a number of intelligence tests. IQ scores generally have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
latency:

Freud's fourth psychosexual stage, from ages 6-11 years. During this stage, the child's sexual desires go "underground," as he or she focuses upon academic and social pursuits.
lateralization:

mental retardation:

significantly below average intellectual functioning, coupled with deficits in the ability to function adaptively in the world.
moral reasoning:

the process by which people make moral decisions and judgments.
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2):

an objectively scored personality inventory that assesses psychopathology in several areas, such as anxiety and depression. The most widely used personality inventory.
multiple intelligences:

a theory of intellectual functioning proposed by Howard Gardner, who suggested that individuals can demonstrate abilities in a variety of areas, such as spatial reasoning, musical ability, verbal-linguistic ability, and other areas.
myelinization:

The process by which myelin a fatty substance, wraps around axons, which makes nerve impulses conduct faster.
neurosis:

In Freud's theory, neurosis was a disorder based upon an imbalance between the id, ego, and superego.
objective:

something that can be scored extremely consistently by different scorers. For example, multiple-choice exams are objectively scored, as is the MMPI-2, which is a true-false personality inventory.
object permanence:

the understanding that objects and people exist even if they are not in our presence.
Oedipal complex:

according to Freud, a boy experiences this complex during the phallic stage, during which he experiences sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father as a rival for his mother's affection.
oral stage:

Freud's first psychosexual stage, which takes place during the first year of life. During this stage, the infant's primary sources of gratification, such as eating and sucking, involve the mouth.
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