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absoulute advantage
The advantage that exists when a country has a monopoly on producing a specific product or is able to produce it more efficiently than all other countries
balance of payments
The difference between money coming into a country (from exports) and money leaving the country (for imports) plus money flows from other factors such as tourism, foreign aid, military expenditures, and foreign investment
balance of trade
The total value of a nation's exports compared to its imports over a particular period
common market
A regional group of countries that have a common external tariff, no internal tariffs, and a coordination of laws to facilitate exchange; also called a trading bloc. An example is the European Union
comparative advantage theory
Theory that states that a country should sell to other countries those products that is produces most effectively and efficiently, and buy from other countries those products that it cannot produce as effectively or efficiently
contract manufacturing
A foreign country's production of private-label goods to which a domestic company then attaches its brand name or trademark; also called outsourcing
countertrading
A complex form of bartering in which several countries may be involved, each trading goods for goods or services for services
devaluation
Lowering the value of a nation's currency relative to other currencies
dumping
Selling products in a foreign country at lower prices than those charged in the producing country
embargo
A complete ban on the import or export of a certain product or stopping all trade with a particular country
exchange rate
The value of one nation's currency relative to the currancies of other countries
exporting
Selling products to another country
foreign direct investment
The buying of permanent property and businesses in foreign nations
foreign subsidiary
A company owned in a foreign country by another company (called the parent company)
free trade
The movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic barriers
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
A 1948 agreement that established an international forum for negotiating mutual reductions in trade restrictions
importing
Buying products from another country
import quota
A limit on the number of products in certain categories that a nation can import
joint venture
A partnership in which two or more companies (often from different countries) join to undertake a major project
licensing
A global stategy in which a firm (the licensor) allows a foreign company (the licensee) to produce its product in exchange for a fee (a royalty)
multinational corporation
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement that created a free-trade area among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
strategic alliance
A long-term partnership between two or more companies established to help each company build competitive market advantages
tariff
A tax imposed on imports
trade deficit
An unfavorable balance of trade; occurs when the value of a country's imports exceeds that of its exports
trade protectionism
The use of government regulations to limit the import of goods and services. Advocates of trade protectionism believe that it allows domestic producers to survive and grow, producing more jobs
World Trade Organization (WTO)
The international orgaization that replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and was assigned the duty to mediate trade disputes among nations.
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