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Usually sent in the mail that allows those who cannot go to their precinct on election day to vote
Absentee Ballot
Belief that the government should have all the power and be able to do whatever it wants
Absolutism
a view of bureaucracies that argues agency heads seek to exapnd the size, budget, and power of their agency
Acquisitive Model
Knowingly printing falsehoods in order to harm a person's reputation
Actual Malice
the bureaucratic function of settling disputes by relying on rules and precedents
Administrative Adjudication
An action by the Supreme Court to uphold a ruling by a lower court; that ruling is now the legally binding one.
Affirm
Measures to give minorities special consideration for hiring, school admission, and so on, designed to overcome past discrimination
Affirmative Action
the gaining of control (direct or indirect) over a government regulatory agency by the industry it regulates
Agency Capture
A type of representation in which the representative is seen as an agent, acting on behalf of the district, who is held accountable if he or she does not do as the constituents wish
Agency Representation
the power of the media to determine which issues will be discussed and debated
Agenda Setting
Belief that freedom trumps all other political considerations; the government should play a small tole in people's lives
American conservatism
View that the United States is different from other countries
American exceptionalism
Belief that the government should promote equality in politics and economics
American liberalism
major law banning discrimination against the disabled, it requires employers to make all reasonable accommodations to disabled workers; passed in 1990
Americans with Disablities Act
Belief that all governments are repressive and should be destroyed
Anarchism
the act of congress formally specifying the amount of authorized money that an agency can spend
Appropriation
America's first national constitution, which loosely bound the states under a weak national Congress
Articles of Confederation
document printed by the government that allows voting to be secret
Australian Ballot
Government that can do whatever it wants, without limits
Authoritarian Regime
Ability of the government to exercise power without resorting to violence
Authority
formal declaration by a congressional committee that a certain amount of money is available to an agency
Authorization
A regime in which the government holds all the power
Autocracy
A rule to judge if speech can be limited: if the speech could lead to some sort of "evil," it can be prohibited
Bad-tendency rule
Supreme Court Case decided in 1978 that affirmative action is legal as long as race is not the only factor considered
Bakke case
when a government spends exactly as much as it takes in
balanced budget
legislature with two houses
bicameral legislature
state acting in cooperation with another state
bilateral
proposed law or policy
bill
Bill passed by the legislature that declares a person guilty of a crime
Bill of attainder
first ten amendments of the Constitution, which safeguard some specific rights of the American people and the states
Bill of Rights
international system characterized by two superpowers that roughly balance each other
bipolar system
Primary in which voters can choose candidates from more than one party; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Blanket Primary
A grant-in-aid with few restrictions or rules about how it can be spent
Block Grant
Document submitted to a court that presents one side's argument in a case
Brief
Supreme Court case that ended segregation and declared "separate but equal" to be unconstitutional
Brown v Board of Education
practice of lumping campaign donations from several donors together
Bundling
administrative way of organizing large numbers of people to work together; usually relies on specialization, hierarchy, and standard operating procedure
Bureaucracy
one's ability to purchase things; it is undermined by inflation
Buying Power
A group, composed of the heads of federal departments and key agencies, that advises the president
Cabinet
Belief that the powers of church and state should be united in one person
Caesaropapism
collection of court decisions that shape law
case law
Work done by a member of Congress or his or her staff on behalf of constituents
casework
money given for a specific purpose that comes with restrictions concerning how the money should be spent. 
Categorical Grants
(two types: project & formula)
Gathering of political leaders to make decisions, such as which candidate to nominate for an office; set policy; and plot strategy
Caucus
Counting the population to determine representation in the House of Reps.  Constitution mandates one every ten years
Census
Insitution with the power to implement monetary policy
Central Bank
Proccess by which law- and policy making becomes centrally located
Centralization
Document issued by state government granting certain powers and responsibilities to a local government
Charter
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