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Iliopsoas
Origin:
Iliacus: inner surface of the ilium.
Psoas major and minor: lower borders of the transverse processes (L1-L5), sides of the bodies of the last thoracic vertebrae (T12), the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5), intervertebral fibrocartilages, and base of the sacrum.

Insertion:
Iliacus and psoas major: lesser trochanter of the femur and the shaft just below.
Psoas minor: pectineal line (of pubis) and iliopectineal eminence.

Action:
Flexion of the hip.
External rotation of the femur.

Innervation:
Lumbar nerve and femoral nerve (L2-L4).
Iliopsoas - Iliacus m.
Iliopsoas - Psoas major and minor m.
Rectus Femoris
Origin:
Anterior inferior iliac spine of the ilium and groove (posterior) above the acetabulum.

Insertion:
Superior aspect of the patella and patellar tendon to the tibial tuberosity.

Action:
Flexion of the hip.
Extension of the knee.

Innervation:
Femoral nerve (L2-L4).
Rectus Femoris m.
Sartorius
Origin:
Anterior superior iliac spine and notch just below the spine.

Insertion:
Anterior medial surface of the tibia just below the condyle.

Action:
Flexion of the hip.
Flexion of the knee.
External rotation of the thigh as it flexes the hip and knee.
Abduction of the hip.
Internal rotation of the knee.

Innervation:
Femoral nerve.
Sartorius m.
Pectineus
Origin:
Space 1-inch wide on the front of the pubis just above the crest.

Insertion:
Rough line leading from the lesser trochanter down to the linea aspera (pectineal line of femur).

Action:
Flexion of the hip.
Adduction of the hip.
External rotation of the hip.


Innervation:
Femoral nerve (L2-L4).
Pectineus m.
Adductuor Brevis
Origin:
Front of the inferior pubic ramus just below the origin of the longus.

Insertion:
Lower two-thirds of the pectineal line of the femur and the upper half of the medial lip of the linea aspera.

Action:
Adduction of the hip.
External rotation as it adducts the hip.
Assists in flexion of the hip.


Innervation:
Obturator nerve (L3-L4).
Adductor Brevis m.
Adductor Longus
Origin:
Anterior pubis just below its crest.

Insertion:
Middle third of the linea aspera.

Action:
Adduction of the hip.
Assists in flexion of the hip.


Innervation:
Obturator nerve (L3-L4).
Adductor Longus m.
Adductor Magnus
Origin:
Edge of the entire ramus of the pubis and the ischium and ischial tuberosity.

Insertion:
Whole length of the linea aspera, inner condyloid ridge, and adductor tubercle.

Action:
Adduction of the hip.
External rotation as the hip adducts.
Extension of the hip.


Innervation:
Anterior: obturator nerve (L2-L4).
Posterior: sciatic nerve (L4-L5, S1-S3).
Adductor Magnus m.
Gracilis
Origin:
Anteromedial edge of the descending ramus of the pubis.

Insertion:
Anterior medial surface of the tibia just below the condyle.

Action:
Adduction of the hip.
Weak flexion of the knee.
Internal rotation of the hip.
Assists with flexion of the hip.
Weak internal rotation of the knee.

Innervation:
Obturator nerve (L2-L4).
Gracilis m.
Semitendinosus
Origin:
Ischial tuberosity

Insertion:
Anterior medial surface of the tibia just below the condyle

Action:
Flexion of the knee
Extension of the hip
Internal rotation of the hip
Internal rotation of the flexed knee
Posterior pelvic rotation

Innervation:
Sciatic nerve - tibial division (L5-S1-S2)
Semitendinosus m.
Semimembranosus
Origin:
Ischial tuberosity

Insertion:
Posteromedial surface of the medial tibial condyle

Action:
Flexion of the knee
Extension of the hip
Internal rotation of the hip
Internal rotation of the flexed knee
Posterior pelvic rotation

Innervation:
Sciatic nerve - tibial division )L5, S1-S2)
Semimembranosus m.
Biceps Femoris
Origin:
Long Head: Ischial tuberosity
Short head: Lower half of the linea aspera, and lateral condyloid ridge

Insertion:
Lateral condyle of the tibia and head of the fibula

Action:
Flexion of the knee
Extension of the hip
External rotation of the hip
Externalrotation of the flexed knee
Posterior pelvic rotation

Innervation:
Long Head: Sciatic nerve - tibial division (S1-S3)
Short Head: Sciatic nerve - peroneal division (L5, S1-S2)
Biceps Femoris m.
Gluteus Maximus
Origin:
Posterior one-fourth of the crest of the ilium, posterior surface of the sacrum and coccyx near the ilium, and fascia of the lumbar area

Insertion:
Oblique ridge (gluteal tuberosity) on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter and the iliotibial band of the fasciae latae

Action:
Extension of the hip
External rotation of the hip
Upper fibers: assist in hip abduction
Lower fibers: assist in hip adduction
Posterior pelvic rotation

Innervation:
Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1-S2)
Gluteus Maximus m.
Gluteus Medius
Origin:
Lateral surface of the ilium just below the crest

Insertion:
Posterior and middle surfaces of the greater trochanter of the femur

Action:
Abduction of the hip
Lateral pelvic rotation to ipsilateral side
Anterior fibers: internal rotation and flexion of the hip
Posterior fibers: external rotation and extension of the hip

Innervation:
Superior gluteal nerve (L4-L5, S1)
Gluteus Medius m.
Gluteus Minimus
Origin:
Lateral surface of the ilium just below the origin of the gluteus medius

Insertion:
Anterior surface of the greater trochanter of the femur

Action:
Abduction of the hip
Lateralpelvic rotation to ipsilateral side
Internal rotation as the femur abducts
Flexion fo the hip

Innervation:
Superior gluteal nerve (L4-L5, S1)
Gluteus Minimus m.
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Origin:
Anterior iliac crest and surface of the ilium just below the crest

Insertion:
One-fourth of the way down the thigh into the iliotibial tract, which in turn inserts onto Gerdy's tubercle of the anterolateral tibial condyle

Action:
Abduction of the hip
Flexion of the hip
Tendency to rotate the hip internally as it flexes
Anterior pelvic rotation

Innervation:
Superior gluteal nerve (L4-L5, S1)
Tensor Fasciae Latae m.
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