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Infectious disease
Invasion or infection of a person by pathogens
Pathogen
disease by disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune system to mount a defensive reaction
Immune System
Body’s defense system against invading microorganisms
Mechanical defenses
skin, mucus, membranes, etc
Cellular defenses
eliminates microorganisms, foreign proteins, abnormal cells
Preventing Disease Spread
Wash hands Keep facility clean Keep immunizations up to date Use universal precautions
Universal Precautions
1991 OSHA Used in an environment where individuals are exposed to bodily fluids
Controlling Bleeding
Gloves Absorbent material Gauze Towels New uniform Facility clean up
Pathogens
Virus Bacteria Fungus
Virus
Require host cells to complete life cycle
Blood borne pathogen
virus transmitted through contact with blood or bodily fluids
Rhinovirus
Common cold, over 100 different strains Direct or indirect transmission Cough, sneeze, touching, contaminated articles S/s:coughing sneezing running nose Management: palliative, treat symptoms but not virus
Influenza
Flu – deadly to young and elderly S/s: fever, chills, cough, headache, general aches Management: palliative
Reye’s Syndrome
Associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral disease Encephalopathy, liver enlargement, jaundice Potentially fatal
Rules
Under the age of 18 don’t give aspirin, could be fatal in some conditions Tylenol and Advil for people younger than 18
Infectious Mononucleosis
Epstein-Barr virus (herpes group) Incubates 4-6 weeks, transmitted through saliva S/s: severe fatigue, headache, myalgia, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged spleen Management: palliative Cant complete till spleen is back to regular size
Varicella
Chicken pox (herpes virus 3) Incubation 2-3weeks after exposure Contagious 5 days before and 5 days after rash appears S/s: rash (begins on back and chest), fever Management: palliative – cal lotions
Hepatitis B
Etiology: swelling, soreness, loss of normal liver function S/s: flu-like symptoms Fatigue, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing on the skin) Can be asymptomatic Show you problems in life
Hepatitis B
Prevention: Good hygiene HBV can survive on contaminated media for at least 1 week Vaccination: 3 doses over 6 months 2nd dose: 87% immune 3rd dose: 96% immune
Hepatitis C
Most common BBP in US Liver disease (acute and chronic) S/s: 80% have none Jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, joint pain
Hepatitis C
Prevention: Universal precautions No vaccine Drinking alcohol increases liver damage
HIV
Infects cellular immune response S/s: fatigue, weight loss, muscle or joint pain, painful or swollen glands May go 8-10 years before symptoms develop 50% develop AIDS within 10 years of HIV infection
HIV
Prevention: wear gloves, protect self, stay away from blood soaked materials Management: Drug cocktail Enzyme blocker Viral synthesis blocker T cell protection
Herpes Simplex
Gladitorum, zoster Highly contagious Direct transmission through lesion or mucous membrane
Herpes Simplex
S/s: tingling or hypersensitivity in infected area 24hrs prior to lesions Outbreak of vesicles Vesicles filled with a yellowish, clear fluid Skin under blisters is red
Herpes Simplex
Prevention:know what medications (cant compete if have herpes), make sure have no herpes or ringworm Treatment: Antiviral drugs can reduce recurrence and shorten course of outbreak Valcyclovir, acyclovir
Bacteria
Single cell microorganisms Can live independently outside the body Treated with antibiotics
Meningitis
Very contagious, immediate quarantine and antibiotics
Meningitis
S/s: high fever, stiff neck, intense headache, light and sound sensitive Eventual seizures and coma Treatment: medical emergency, quarantine, anitbiotics (heavy duty)
Pneumonia
Can be viral, bacterial or fungal Bacteria has most rapid onset
Pneumonia
S/s: high fever, chills, pain on inspiration, decreased breath sounds Treatment: antibiotics, breathing exercises
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA; community or hospital acquired Antibiotic resistant: cant be treated with penecillins and cephalosporins VERY contagious
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
S/s: starts as red bump resembling boil or pimple Bumps become large, painful, puss filled abscess
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA
Prevention: don’t share, keep things clean Treatment: aggressive antibiotics
Fungus
Group of organisms that include yeast and mold Usually not pathogenic Commonly affect skin, hair and nails Grow best in warm, dark, moist, unsanitary conditions (locker rooms, dirty laundry) Spread by direct contact
Tinea
S/s: small papule that spreads peripherally, red plaques Easily spread through close contact Treatment: creams, shampoos, cleaning
Tinea
Capitis - Scalp Corprois - Body Pedis – Feed (athlete’s foot)
Gen Med Disorders
Blood Metabolic Neurologic Cardiovascular Pulmonary
Iron deficiency anemia
Impaired red blood cell formation, excessive loss, or destruction
Iron deficiency anemia
S/s: performance decline, fatigue, rapid progression to anaerobic (no oxygen) metabolism Management: balanced diet, supplements
Sickle Cell Anemia
Limited ability to carry oxygen, limited ability to pass through vessels Can clause clustering and clogging Embolus – when clots break free Fragile cells break easily, contribute to clogging
Sickle Cell Anemia
Exercise factors: hyperthermia, dehydration, severe hypoxia, altitude S/s: fever, pallor, muscle weakness, headaches, convulsions, splenic infarct Management: anticoagulants
Hemophilia
Hereditary absence of clotting factors
Hemophilia
S/s: prolonged coagulation time, abnormal bleeding Management: treat bleeding as a medical emergency, no cure
Cardiovascular disorder: Hypertension
High blood pressure Causes: Poor diet, lifestyle, age, obesity, drink and smoking too much Concerns for exercise? Exercise raises blood pressure, normal 120/80 Management: proper nutrition, supervised exercise, substance abuse management
Pulmonary disorder: Asthma
Airway spasm caused by: emotional upset, changes in barometric pressure, temperature, exercise, allergen
Pulmonary disorder: Asthma
S/s: difficulty exhaling, wheezing Management: appropriate exercise, medication Rescue inhalers
Metabolic Disorder: Diabetes
Type 1: Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) Insulin and pretzels available Type 2: Non-Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)
Metabolic Disorder: Diabetes
Body either doesn’t produce enough insulin or resists insulin
Diabetes
Management: monitor glucose levels, diet Things to have on hand during events: pretzels and insulin
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