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Moral standard of  ERP (Kant's ethics)
An action is right iff that action respects the dignity and well-being of each rational agent.
key terms:
agent-one who does/conducts (their behavior)
Rational-we look to logic/reason. we dont do things that are illogical
Respect-to look back on, regard, consider
Dignity-what makes human's special? our soul. capacity for reason
Consequentialist moral theories
Theories which hold the consequence of one's conduct the basis for judgment. 
ex. egoism and utilitarianism
Non-consequentialist moral theories
Theories which hold virtues or intent of one's conduct for the basis of judgment.  However, consequences are not irrelevent.
ex. Virtues ethics or Kant's ethics
Universalization principle
act only in such a way that you can universalize your actions (consent to everyone doing what youre doing).
1.determine the caction under deliberation (remove any autobiographical details
2.imagine the world if everyone always did what youre considering (and everyone knows about it)
ex. if everyone lied noone would believe anyone.
Means/Ends Principle
act only in such a way that you treat human beings, yourself included, as an end and never merely as a means.

a self-directed, freely choosing individual.
ex. supporting someone's goals
Mere Means
someone used w/o their knowledge or consent, using someone as an instrument w/o regard for them.
ex. manipulation, pencils

Morally impermissible
someone employed someone to obtain a goal, but w/ his/her consent, w/o violating their ability to choose
ex. students and teachers

morally permissible
Principle of Forfeiture
A person loses his/her right to be treated as an end when they act irrationally.
To look over those who are irrational
The state uses "weak" paternalism
ex. mentally ill
Moral standard of Virtue Ethics
An action is right iff it is whatt a virtuous person would do in the circumstances
key terms:
Person-a human being
Circumstances-the situation in which one is called to act
virtuous person-one who possesses virtue
Virtue-character trait that lends one to act morally
Aristotle's Golden Mean
How to figure out what a virtue is
Any virtue lies between 2 extremes (vices)
Virtue is somewhere inbetween, but not mathematical mean
Virtue is determined by the context in which one is acting, but also by the person acting him/herself
ex. action in deliberating:standing in line
Vices: impatient, push-over
Virtue: patience
Greek virtues
courage, temperance, wisdom, justice
christian virtues
faith, hope, charity
Feminist virtues
care, cultivating/maintaining relationships
consistency/coherence (Kant's Ethics)
formal/logical (no internal contradictions?)
Everyone can employ the universal principle to get the same results.
Everyone can determine if they are using themselves/others or freely choosing.
Contradictions? Kant has several formulations of his MS
solution: several principles
Justification (kant's Ethics)
Rational/Theoretical (is it convincing?)
3 arguments:
1)rationality argument-all humans possess the capacity to use logic.  Logic is the formal structure of rational thought. therefore all humans are rational.
2)Good will arg-The only thing that is really good is good will (everything else can be used for bad purposes) A good will is one that performs its duties. Duties are determined by logical testing, therefore its ethical to perform our duties as determined by reason rather than desire (it shows good will at work)
3)freedom/dignity arg-we have a conflict of duty vs desire.  Implies a choice to obey reason or desire.  ability to differentiate between duty and desire is a unique human activity. seperates us from the animals.

Taken together show anethical system thats based upon shard human traits FREEDOM AND REASON. this is the ground for moral theory.
Common sense/ emotional
Does the judgment match your pre-reflective (gut) feeling?
Usefulness (Kant's Ethics)
Does it solve problems? Sometimes-think crowded life boat (lotto)
Is it easy to use? using universalization principle hard to remove all autobiographical info
When are you using someone as a means rather than a mere means?
Consistency/Coherence (Virtue ethics)
Doesnt provide strict presciptions therefore it cannot be inconsistent
No moral principles therefore it cannot be incoherent
prblm-Aristotle's virtues may be in conflict w/ feminist virtues b/c indep person may not be "plugged in" to interconnectiveness of relationships.
solution-even the aristotle's "great souled man" shows car and concern for friends.
Emphasizing diff virutes will lead to diff moral judgments but this isnt an inconsistency (b/c conceptual frame is diff)
Justification (Virtue Ethics)
3 arguments:
1)moral rule arg-can correspond virtues w/moral rules and moral rules are justified then virtues are justified.
ex. virtue-honesty; rule-act honestly
acting honestly is justifed b/c its waht a virtuous peron does. therefore virtue ethics is justified
prblms 1 and 2=not all virtues correstpond w/ rules. why should i be virtuous?
2)well-being arg-everyone wants happiness, happiness means having well-being, in order to have well-being you must cultivate virtues, therefore must have virtues to be happy.
prblm-why msut you have virtue to be happy?
3)the "who" arg-we care who we are (dont want to be villian) want to be happy, obtain things w/o fear, virtues help obtain things w/o fear, therefore virtues are dessential to getting what we want.
arg 3 overwrites 1 and 2
Usefulness (Virtue ethics)
Does tell us what to do/ solve prblms?
no.  Cant tell you what a virtuous person would do in a crowded life boat.
Ease of application?
Easy to apply golden mean? kinda...
Normative Disciplines
Law/ Legality
Characteristics of Normative Disciplines
Overriding Importance
Indep of Arbitrary authority
is Prescriptive, Impartial, and overridingly important
It is not Indep of Arbitrary Authority
Is prescriptive and Impartial
Is not Overridingly important and Indep of Arbitrary Authority
Is prescriptive and Impartial
Is not overridingly important and indep of arbitrary authority
Is impartial and indep. arbitrary authority
Is not overridingly important.
? by prescriptive
Is impartial, prescriptive, overridingly important, and indep. arbitrary authority
Tells how one ought to act (not how one acts)
everyone is included, no bias no exceptions
Overriding Importance
Important to the safety/governance of our lives
Indep of arbitrary authority
no go to source/person/manual to find answers for how to act
Factual Issues
The defined parameters of athe case
ex. aboartion terminates pregnancy
Conceptual issues
concepts at play in case
ex muder, innocent, life (when it begins and ends)
Mora issues
Whether taking a life is right/wrong
ex. any life, innocent life
Moral standard
first level of moral theory
gives characteristic(s) that any action or person must have to be morally right.
ex. what makes me happy is what is ethical
Highly abstract
Moral Principles
2nd level of moral theories
Make moral evaluations of types or classes of action
ex. capital punishment is wrong
more concrete than standards, more abstract than judgments
Moral judgments
3 stage of moral theories
give moral evaluations of specific actions or individuals
ex Timothy Mcveigh shouldnt be executed
Determines whether one should perform a specific action
case by case application
Moral Judgments
Morally obligatory
Morally Impermissible
Morally permissible
One who conducts
Look to logic and reason
To regard, consider
What makes humans special? Our soul.
Character trait that makes one act moral
x of y cards