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achalasia
"This is an impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis. (You may remember that peristalsis is the movement of the muscles in the alimentary canal to propel the food bolus.) It also affects the ability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The most common symptoms are dysphagia
anorexia nervosa
"This is a mental condition characterized by an individual's refusal to eat enough to maintain a minimal body weight
appendicitis
"Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. (The term appendix is actually a general term which means a supplementary
vermiform
"The vermiform appendix specifically identifies the diverticulum of the cecum. However
atresia
The absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
bezoar
"Tightly packed
botulism
"A type of food poisoning caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum in improperly canned foods. It is characterized by vomiting
cheiloschisis
This is another term for cleft lip or harelip. It is a congenital abnormality.
cholecystitis
"Inflammation of the gallbladder. There are different types of cholecystitis
cholelithiasis
The presence or formation of gallstones.
cirrhosis
This refers to a group of liver diseases in which the normal hepatic structure is destroyed over time by nodules. It is the third leading cause of death in North America for people 45 to 65 years of age. In North America it is often caused by chronic alcohol abuse. (In other parts of the world it can be caused by untreated and highly communicable strains of hepatitis.)
colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
dehydration
"A condition that results from an excessive loss of body water. This can occur on a hot day without a drinking fountain close by
dental caries
"Tooth decay. Although this is a component of the dental specialty
diarrhea
"Abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal discharges. Diarrhea is actually a symptom that suggests the presence of a disorder. However
diverticulum
"An abnormal bulge
diverticula
The plural form of diverticulum. (The plural of diverticulum is NOT diverticuli; this is a common dictation/transcription error.)
diverticulitis
Inflammation of a diverticulum.
diverticulosis
"The presence of diverticula with the absence of diverticulitis
Zenker diverticulum
The most common place that a diverticulum occurs is just below the pharynx.
dysentery
"Any of a variety of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines
amebic dysentery
"The most common type of dysentery
amebiasis
The state of being infected by amebae.
dyspepsia
"General term which means impairment to the power or function of digestion. It often refers to discomfort in the epigastric region following a meal
enteritis
"Inflammation of the intestine
enterocolitis
Inflammation of both the intestine and colon.
cholera
A form of enteritis that is spread by food and water contaminated with feces. It is much more common in Third World countries.
esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus.
fecalith
An intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center of fecal matter.
fistula
"An abnormal passage or communication between two organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body. There are several different types. It can occur because of trauma
gastritis
"Inflammation of the stomach. This is commonly combined (e.g.
gastroenteritis
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
"The reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. It is often represented by the acronym GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). This is usually caused by an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. The major symptom is heartburn
halitosis
"Offensive breath. This can be real as the result of ingested substances
hepatitis
"Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be due to viral
hernia
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening. There are several classifications of hernias. The most common types follow.
abdominal hernia
The protrusion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
hiatal hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm. There are both a sliding hiatal hernia and a paraesophageal hiatal hernia.
sliding hiatal hernia
A hernia in which the stomach and a section of esophagus which joins the stomach slide up into the chest through what is called the hiatus (gap/passage).
paraesophageal hiatal hernia
"A hernia in which part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus
inguinal hernia
A hernia into the inguinal canal. There are both direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
umbilical hernia
Protrusion of part of the intestine through the umbilicus.
Hirschsprung disease
"Congenital megacolon
hypertrophy
The enlargement of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells.
ileus
"The temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis
adynamic ileus
"A suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength). This can be the result of drugs
inflammatory bowel disease
"This can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders which are inflammatory in nature
Crohn disease
"It is not known what causes Crohn disease; it can affect any part of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus
ulcerative colitis
"A chronic
intussusception
This occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
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