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Photosynthesis autotrophs
They generate their own organic matter from inorganic ingredients vis photosynthesis. I.E. Plants
Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis occurs in these. All green parts of plants contain chloroplast. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy that it uses to make food.
Leaf cross section
Mesophyll-green tissue in interior of the leaf, stoma-pores of the leaf found on the bottom where CO₂and O₂ exit.
Chloroplast Structure
Inner and outer membrane, Stroma-Thick fluid, Thylakoids-dislike sacs, Grana-Stacks of thylakoids. Chlorophyll are built inot the thylakoids.
Equation for Photosynthesis
6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂
What occurs in Photosynthesis
Takes the exhaust of cell respiration and sunlight and turns it inot food and oxygen. Electrons move uphill and r aded to CO2
Photosynthesis\\\'s 2 stages
light reaction and calvin cycle
Light reaction
Converst solar energy to chemical energy. ATP and NADPH
Calvin Cycle
Makes sugar from CO₂, ATP, and NADPH
Wavelength
Distance between the crest/peaks of 2 adjacent waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Full range of radiation from small 2 big waves. Colors we see r b/c the other colors r aborbed by material & the others r reflected. Absrobed is converted 2 other energy
Chlorophyll a
absorbs mainly blue-violet and red light making it look green.
Chlorophyll b
absorbs blue and orange light and reflects/appears yellow-green. Does not participate in light reactions but increases the amount of light absorbed.
Carotenoids
Absorbs blue-green light and appears yellow-orange. Pass energy to chlorophyll and absorb and dissapate excessive light.
Photon
Fixed quantity of light energy.
Photosystem
Cluster of a few hundred pigment molecules embedded in the membrane. Chlorophyll a and b also carotenoids.
Reaction center
Center of photosystem. Conversion of light to ATP and NADPH occurs. Chlorophyll a sits next 2 another molecule called the primary electron acceptor
2 types of Photosystems
Water-splitting (uses light 2 extract electrons from H₂O), NADPH-Producing (Transferrs light excited electrons from chlorphyll to NADP⁺) Connected by electron transport chain
Calvin Cycle
Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. CO2, ATP, and NADPH Rinulose Bisphophate are combined to create the sugar G3P. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Global Warming
Caused by greenhouse effect which is when heat is trapped in by CO2 in the atmosphere.
Oxygen Evolution
Bacteria had to evolve in order to handle the newly acquired Oxygen in the atmosphere. This created Cyanobacteria.
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