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amount of drug in body/_______ = Vd
plasma drug concentration (note: Vd is Volume of Distribution)
rate of elimination of drug/[plasma drug] = ?
CL (Clearance)
(.7)(Vd)/CL = ?
T 1/2
A drug infused at a constant rate reaches about 94% of steady state after _______ t 1/2s.
Dosage Calculations
p. 288
A loading dose is calculated using this formula.
"(Cp)(Vd)/F (note: Cp = target plasma concentration
A maintenance dose is calculated using this formula.
Elimination of Drugs
p. 288
Rate of elimination is proportional to _______ ______ in 1st order elimination.
drug concentration
"In the case of EtOH
which is elimated by _____ order elimination
Phase I vs. Phase II metabolism
p. 289
Phase ____ (I or II) reactions yield slightly polar metabolites that are often _____ (active or inactive)
Phase ____ (I or II) reactions yield very polar metabolites that are often _____ (active or inactive) and are excreted by the _______.
Phase II reactions are often of this type.
Cytochrome P-450 is involved in _____ phase (I or II) reactions.
Drug Development
p. 289
A patent lasts for _____ years after filing for application.
How many phases are there in drug development?
"Drugs are first tested in patients in phase _____ of clinical testing
pharmacokinetic safety is determined in phase ______ of clinical testing
p. 289
"In a dose response curve
a competitive antagonist shifts the curve _____
What pharmacologic relationship would determine the existence of spare receptors?
EC50 < Kd
What does it mean if EC50 and Kd are equal?
The system does not have spare receptors
A partial agonist acts on the same receptor system as a full agonist? T/F
What's the main difference between a partial agonist and a full agonist?
A partial agonist has a lower maximal efficacy.
Is a partial agonist less potent than a full agonist?
"Not necessarily. It can be less
Antimicrobial Tx -- Mechanism of Action
p. 291
"The penicillin type drugs work by blocking ------ synthesis
specifically by inhibiting this molecule from cross-linking?"
Which other drugs (aside from penicillin) have this same mechanism of action?
vancomycin and cycloserine block the synthesis of this molecule
These drugs block the 50s ribosomal subunit
These drugs block the 30s ribosomal subunit
"Aminoglycosides and tetracyclines "Buy AT 30
These drugs block nucleotide synthesis by interfering with the folate pathway
"Sulfonamides (e.g. Bactrim)
These drugs block DNA topoisomerases
Quinolones (e.g. Cipro)
Which drug blocks mRNA synthesis
Which are the bacteriacidal Abx
These drugs disrupt the bacterial/fungal cell membranes
These specific disrupt fungal cell membranes
"amphotericin B
What is the mechanism of action of Pentamidine
p. 291
Which is the IV form and which is the oral form
"G = IV
"Which of these is not a mechanism of penicillin action: (1) binds penicillin-binding protein
(2) blocks peptidoglycan synthesis
T or F: penicillin is effective against gram pos and gram neg rods
"False: penicillin is used to treat common streptococci (but not staph)
What should you watch out for when giving penicillin?
"Hypersensitivity rxn (urticaria
These drugs are used mainly for what type of infection
Staphlococcal infection (hence very narrow spectrum)
T or F: these drugs have the same mechanism of action as penicillin
Are these drugs penicillinase resistant? If so why?
Bulkier R group makes these drugs resistant to penicillinase
What should you watch out for when giving these drugs?
"Hypersensitivity rxn (urticaria
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