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Nursing Process
- generally defined as a systematic problem solving approach toward giving individualized nursing care
Output
- End product of a system
Primary Source
-the client
Problem-solving Process
- Systematic process that involves identifying and analyzing the problem, determining and weighing the possible solutions, choosing and implementing a solution, and evaluating the results.
Secondary Source
- Family, significant others, other healthcare professionals, health records, and literature review
Diastolic BP
-pressure in the blood vessels during cardiac ventricular relaxation
Systems Theory
- Way of reviewing the world or an organization in which the parts are seen in relation to the whole
Throughput
- Process by which a system transforms, creates, and organizes input, resulting in a reorganization of the input
Antiseptic
antiseptic-agent that stops or slows the growth of  microorganisms on living tissue, commonly used  for hand washing, skin preparation, and wound packing  or irrigation
Asepsis
-absence of disease-producing microorganisms
Autoclaving
-supersaturated steam under pressure; the most widely used and dependable method of sterilization
Bactericidal
-able to kill bacteria
Bacteriostatic
-able to inhibit the growth of bacteria
Carrier
-person from whom a microorganism can be cultured but who shows no sign of a disease
Disinfectant
-Chemical used to kill microorganisms on  lifeless objects.
Hand Hygiene
-hand washing with soap and water or cleansing  the hands with a waterless alcohol -based cleanser to prevent the spread of infection.
Infectious Disease
-process resulting from infection that produces  manifestations such as fever, leukocytes's inflammation  or tissue damage
Isolation
-techniques used to prevent or to limit the spread of  infection.
Nosocomial Infections
-infection acquired during receipt of  healthcare
Opportunistic Infections
-organisms that invade the tissues when the body's defenses are suppressed.
Virulence
-vigor with which an organism can grow  and multiply
Alopecia
- Hair loss
Carries
- cavities in the tooth enamel
Cerumen
- earwax
Commode
- portable chair with a toilet seat and a waste receptacle beneath that can be emptied so a client who cannot walk to the bathroom can manage toileting
Condom Catheter
- Noninvasive urinary collection device for incontinent male clients; consists of a thin, flexible sheath placed over the penis and attached to tubing and a collection bag (external, Texas)
Dysphagia
- difficulty swallowing (inability to swallow)
Gingiva
-oral mucosa
Standard Precautions
-the latest CDC isolation system that  combines the major features of Universal Precautions  (blood-borne transmission) and body substance isolation  (moist body substance transmission), thus protecting against  blood and body-fluid transmission of potentially, infective agents.
Halitosis
-mouth odor
Hygiene
-observance of health rules as related to self-care-activities (bathing, dressing, feeding, and toileting)
Specificity
-organism's attraction to a specific host, which  may include humans.
Micturation
-urination
Urinal
-metal or plastic receptacle into which the penis can be placed to facilitate urinating without spilling
Sepsis
-poisoning of body tissues; usually refers to blood-borne organisms or their toxic products
Sterilization
-(1) Destruction of all bacteria, Spores, fungi and  viruses on an item, accomplished by heat, chemicals, or gas; (2) Rendered unable to reproduce biologically
Self-care
-a person's ability to perform primary care functions in the four areas of bathing, feeding, toileting, and dressing without the help of others
Pediculosis
-infestation with lice
Plaque
-substance that forms and hardens on the teeth and is composed primarily of bacteria and saliva
Proprioception
-awareness of the position and movements of body parts in space, sensed by sensory nerve terminals in muscles, tendons, and the labyrinth of the ear
Tartar
-plaque that remains and hardens on the teeth, which cannot be removed by simply brushing
Table 26-1 Normal Vital Sign Ranges Across the Lifespan  PulseRespirationsTemperature (°F)Blood Pressure (mm Hg) SystolicDiastolic Newborn (>96 h) 70–190 30–60 96–99.5 60–90 20–60 Infant (>1 mo) 80–160 30–60 99.4–99.7 74–100 50–70 Toddler 80–130 24–40 99–99.7 80–112 50–80 Preschooler 80–120 22–34 98.6–99 82–110 50–78 School-age 75–110 18–30 98–98.6 84–120 54–80 Adolescent 60–90 12–20 97–99 94–120 62–80 Adult 60–100 12–20 97–99 90–120 60–80 Older adult (>70 yr) 60–100 12–20 95–99 90–120 60–80
Table 27-1 INFECTIOUS CONDITIONS REQUIRING WORK RESTRICTION Infectious ConditionDirect Client Care Restrictions and Duration Conjunctivitis Until discharge ceases Diarrhea (with other acute symptoms) Until symptoms resolve and Salmonella infection is ruled out Hepatitis A Until 7 days after the onset of jaundice Hepatitis B (acute) Partial client care restriction with gloves worn for procedures involving tissue trauma and mucous membrane or nonintact skin contact Hepatitis B (chronic) Until antigenemia resolves Group A streptococcal infection Until 24 hours after the start of treatment Herpes simplex (hands) Until lesions resolve Herpes zoster (acute) Exclusion from care of clients at high risk for infection with use of appropriate barriers Herpes zoster (postexposure) From days 10 to 21 after exposure or until all lesions dry and crust Measles (active) Until 7 days after rash appears Measles (postexposure) From days 5 to 21 after exposure Mumps (active) Until 9 days after onset of parotitis Mumps (postexposure) From days 12 to 26 after exposure Norovirus Until 3 days after symptoms resolve Rubella (active) Until 5 days after rash appears Rubella (postexposure) From days 7 to 21 after exposure Scabies Until treated Staphylococcus aureus skin lesions Until lesions resolve Upper respiratory tract infections Until acute symptoms resolve with exclusion from care of clients at high risk for infection Varicella (acute) Until all lesions dry and crust Varicella (postexposure) From days 10 to 21 after exposure
Table 27-2 Transmission-Based Precautions  PrecautionsIndications Airborne Private, negative-airflow room with adequate filtration; mask; mask worn by client during transport out of room Transmission via airborne route (small-particle droplets); tuberculosis, measles, varicella Droplet Private room or cohabitation with client infected with same organism; mask required when working within 3 feet of client; mask worn by client during transport Transmission of large droplets through sneezing, coughing, or talking. Haemophilus influenzae, multidrug-resistant strains, Neisseria meningitidis, diphtheria, rubella, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Contact Private room or cohabitation with client infected with same organism; gloves at all times (don before entering room and remove before leaving) with change after exposure to organism; handwashing immediately after removal of gloves; gown and protective barriers when direct contact with organism occurs; daily cleaning of bedside equipment and client care items; exclusive use of items such as stethoscope and sphygmomanometer for infected client with terminal disinfection when precautions are no longer necessary Serious infections easily transmitted through direct contact. Any multidrug-resistant strains, Clostridium difficile, Shigella, impetigo, and others
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