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acculturation
-the degree to which a member of culturally
-diverse group accepts & adheres to the values, attitudes & behaviors of her own group & the dominant group -can be described into four categories
four categories of acculturation
-integration -assimilation -separation -marginalization
integration
-type of acculturation -person maintains her own (minority) culture but also incorporates many aspects of the dominant (majority) culture -also known as biculturalism
assimilation
-type of acculturation -person accepts majority culture while reliquishing her own culture
separation
-type of acculturation -person withdraws from dominant culture & accepts her own culture
marginalization
-type of acculturation -person does not identify with either her own culture or the dominant culture
racial / ethnic identity
-a person\'s perception that he shares a common racial or ethnic heritage with a specific group
general guidelines for cross-cultural counseling
-make sure language is not barrier -identify client\'s stage of racial/ethnic identity development, degree of acculturation, & worldview -don\'t evaluate culturally-relevant behaviors as pathology -recognize that discrimination & prejudice are real problems for minorities -acknowledge cultural differences & encourage clients to talk about feelings on differences -don\'t overgeneralize cultural patterns to all members of group
cultural encapsulation
-tendency of counselors to interpret everyone\'s reality through their own cultural assumptions & stereotypes -also when counselor disregards differences or their own cultural biases
emic vs. etic orientation
-emic refers to culture-specific theories, concepts & research strategies; used when trying to understand a culture through the eyes of its members -etic refers to phenomena that reflect a universal, cultural-general orientation; views people from different cultures as same; traditional psych theory & practice reflect etic perspective
high-context communication
-relies on shared cultural understanding & nonverbal cues -mostly exhibited by culturally diverse groups -slow to change, helps unify a culture
low-context communication
-relies primarily on verbal message -mostly exhibited by Anglos -can change quickly & easily, less unifying
communication styles
-different communication styles (i.e., high vs. low context) can lead to misunderstandings in cross-cultural therapy
Hispanics & Latinos characteristics
-emphasize family welfare over individual welfare -view interdependence as healthy & necessary; & highly value connectedness & sharing -unacceptable to discuss problems outside of family -concrete, tangible approach to life -attribute events to external factors, such as luck, God, etc. -patriarchal; inflexible sex roles
Hispanics & Latinos counseling
-be active, directive, & adopt multimodal approach -family therapy recommended; familismo -degree of acculturation among family is a source of problems -problems may be expressed as somatic complaints
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