Cloned from: Social Work Exam



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Definition of Alcohol abuse and alcoholism:  
Consumption of large quantities of alcohol Extended period of time Physiological evidence of addiction (i.e. withdrawal syndrome after stopping) Abnormal or chronic loss of control over drinking behaviors Persistent damage to health and or social economic status
Theories of Alcoholism:  
*Alcoholism as a disease: promoted by AA *Reduces moralistic stigma *Alcoholism as a genetic predisposition *Appears to run in families *Alcoholism as psychological problem: Addictive personality
Issues relating to Alcohol Abuse
*Alcohol and driving *Alcohol and life span: maybe shorten by 10-12 years *Alcohol and youth: group treatment generally preferred *Alcohol and elderly: more difficult to detect, general decreased tolerance * Alcohol and pregnancy: Fetal alcohol syndrome * Korsakoff’s Syndrome: advanced disease associated with extended consumption
Approaches to treatment
*Multiple approaches work best * Biological treatment: antabuse, more often used at beginning of treatment training, desensitizing * Group therapy approaches * AA: most widely used, 12 step program, Al Anon, A lateen *Family therapy * Controlled drinking: controversial * Employee assistance programs *Individual psychotherapy: insight oriented therapy, here-and now therapy * Behavioral approaches: aversion therapy, assertiveness
Drug Abuse
Drug habituation: desire to keep taking drugs: little desire to increase quantity taken, no physical dependence, some psychological: detrimental effects on individual only
Drug addiction
Compulsion to continue taking drugs; tendency to take increasing amounts: psychological dependence, usually with physical dependence; detrimental effects on individual
Factors associated with drug use
*Family history of alcoholism * Family history of criminality or antisocial behavior * Problems in parenetal direction of discipline * Parental drug use or parental attitudes approving use * Peer pressure and influence * School failure in mid to late elementary years * Adolescents not interested in school or academic Achievement *Feelings of alienation and being at odds with dominate social values *Antisocial behavior during early adolescence  
Commonly abused drugs
*Anesthetics-PCP angel dust * Narcotics: opiates: opium, morphine, heroin, codeine. Advanced CP walking zombie * Barbiturates (second most frequently abused category) Includes phenbarbital, Nembutal, second hypnotics, sedatives, alchol which is the most frequently abused *Tranqulizers: thorazine, compazine, valium, Librium, cannabis, marijuana Hallucinogens: mescaline. LSD Inhalants: glue, paint thinners, hair spray
Treatment of drug use
* biological approaches: best known in methadone * Methadone is used for treatment in heroin abuse * therapeutic communities * 12 step programs * individual psychotherapy * behavioral treatment such as environmental restructuring *family therapy
Family therapy in substance abuse
Assumptions * Family as a system * homeostasis * concept of “identified patient”
Therapy issues and family roles:
*dependent * enabler *family hero * family scapegoat *lost child *mascot
AARP (American Association of Retired Persons)
the largest senior citizen’s group in the U.S  
Acculturation
The conditioning of one cultural group or individual to the traits, values and social patters of another cultural group. In counseling a minority client, a therapist would be interested in the client’s degree of acculturation into the majority culture.  
Administration on Aging
Organization within the Dept. of  Health and Human Services that facilitates and supervises U.S. programs for the elderly
Adult protective Services
Medical, legal, residential, custodial, and other services provided for adults who are unable to provide for themselves. They cant provide care and have no one to help them to provide it.
Aid to Families with Dependent children  
A federal and state funded public assistance program providing fianancial assistance to poor children and families  
Affirmative Action
Measures taken in organizations to correct imbalances in minority employment, promotion and other opportunities  
Ageism
A form of discrimination against the elderly
Androgyny
Having mannerisims, behaviors, appearance and other characteristics of both sexes. Research show that the therapists prefer to treat androgynous clients, rather than those with typical gender characteristics
SSDI (Social Securtiy Disability Income)
Program providing fiancial aid to needy people with permanent and severed mental and or physical disabilities
Bias    
An attitude that inflences the way one feels toward something or someone
BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
Federal organization providing social services, agricultural and economic aid, education and health programs and protection of civil rights of Native Americans
Categorical Assistance
State welfare programs for particular groups of people  
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Federal legislation that forbids discrimination on the basis of race, religion, or national origin in employment, schools and services
Creaming
The more frequent use of social services and programs by more knowledgeable and less needy population, and their resulting diminished accessibility to others
Culture of poverty
The assumption that the poor are improvised because of the their norms, values, and the level of motivation prevent them from taking advantage of the extensive opprtunities available for attaning economic independence  
Disabled
The term for a person who, due to a physical or mental condition, is unable to carry about certain functions or responsibilites
 
Displaced homemaker
A woman who after spending years as her family’s caretaker, becomes divorced or widowed and does not have marketable skills for becoming gainfully employed  
Elder Abuse
Physical battering, neglect, psychological/emotional harm, or exploitation of elderly person. Most often inflicted by caregivers.
Ethnocentrism
The belief that that one’s culture, ethnic, or racial group is superior to others  
Gerontological social work
Specialized in dealing with psychosocial treatment of elderly persons
Homophobia
 
 
Irrational fear of homosexuals or homosexuality
Means test
Method of evaluating a client’s financial means to determine eligibility for benefits
Medicaid
Federal and state government funded program providing payment for medical and hospital services for those who can not afford them  
Medicare       Medicare    
    National healthcare program for the elderly
NAACP (National Assistance for the advancement of colored people
Largest and oldest U.S civil rights organization; focuses on the protection of the civil rights of African-Americans
Racism
Generalizing or stereotyping of persons based on race; usually negative and results in discrimination
Rehabilitation
In mental health, helping impaired or disabled persons with aim of restoring functioning
Sexism
Institutional or individual actions, attitudes, arrangements, etc. that discriminate against persons based on gender
Social Class
Social category of persons based on wealth, status, power, education, and background
Stereotypes
Preconceived and fairly rigid ideas about a person, group, or social calss based on generalizations about some members and on superficial characteristics
TANF(temporary aid to needy families)  
New federal/ state funded public assistance program providing fiancial assistance to poor children and families for a lifetime maximum of five years, under Welfare reform, supplants AFDC
Victim Blaming
The notion that a person is responsible, to some extent, for being harmed or disadvantaged
WIC program  
Special supplemental food program for women, infants and children designed to safe-guard at risk women, infants and children from nutritional deficits due to insufficient income
Working Poor
Working people whose income and assets are so low that they fall below the poverty line
YAVIS client
Acronym for young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful; therapists prefer treating YAVIS clients
Guidelines for responding to ethics questions
* Identify the parameters of the situation * define the potential issues involved * Identify the guidelines that apply to the resolution of the dilemma * Evaluate the rights, responsibilites and welfare of all affected parties * Evaluate the linguistics of the questions * Think in terms of the Code of Ethis, rather than what you think most social workers would do in a given situation
Confidentiality
Ethical responsibility of social worker to protect information shared by a client in a professional context; info may not be shared without permission of the client  
Copayment    
Condition of an insurance policy that requires patient to contribute to the cost of services received
Due Process    
Laws that protect individuals rights and liberites
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