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1) At the beginning of the 19th century, it was thought that the substances that made up living things were special and could not be synthesized by ordinary chemical methods. This now-discarded theory was called the theory of _____.
Vitalism
2) The first organic molecule to be synthesized from inorganic substances that could be prepared directly from inorganic substances was _____.
Acetic Acid
3) Stanley Miller's experiments were significant because he demonstrated that _____.
a variety of simple organic compounds could be spontaneously synthesized from components in Earth's primitive atmosphere
4) Which is an organic molecule?
CH4 (Methane)
5) Which element is always associated with organic chemistry?
Carbon
6) What is the three-dimensional shape created by hybrid orbitals that are formed when a carbon atom is covalently bonded with four other atoms?
a tetrahedron with carbon in the center
7) A straight-chain carbon compound constructed from _____ must contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
6 Hydrogen, 3 Carbon
8) Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____.
each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions
9) The carbon atom is tetravalent; this means that _____.
a carbon atom can complete its valence shell by forming four covalent bonds
10) The carbon atom is tetravalent; this means that _____.
Hydrophobic, nonpolar, good source of stored energy
11) A molecule has one carbon-carbon double bond and four monovalent atoms or groups. How many different geometric isomers exist for this molecule?
two
12)  The two compounds are related to each other by being _____
(all of the above)

hydrocarbons organic compounds isomers double-bonded compounds
13)  Pharmaceutical companies are selling close to $200 billion worth of single-enantiomer drugs. Why might it be important to use only one form of an enantiomer?
One enantiomer may provide an effective treatment while the other may be ineffective or even toxic
14) Which of the following functional groups is present in all amino acids
NH2
15) Which of the following functional groups is present in all amino acids?
Both -COOH and -NH2
16) Glucose and hexanoic acid each contain six carbon atoms, but they have completely different properties. Glucose is a nutrient found in food; hexanoic acid is poisonous. Their differences must be due to different _____.
functional groups
17) Although the structures of the functional groups that are most important to life vary, they share one thing in common: They _____.
all are hydrophilic and increase the organic compound's water solubility
18) Ethanol, propanol, and methanol are three simple alcohols. They can be grouped together because they _____.
all share the same functional group: a hydroxyl
19) Which one of the following molecules has a carboxyl functional group?
R-COOH
20) Which one of the following molecules is a weak base?
R-NH2
21) hich of the following molecules is a weak acid?
R-COOH
22)  Which one of the following functional groups increases the solubility of organic compounds in water?
(all of the above)


-SH -COOH -COH -NH2
23) Which of the following examples describes a unique functional property of the carboxyl group?
The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions tend to dissociate reversibly.
24) Which of the following functional groups is associated with a release of energy that cells can harvest to perform many functions?
phosphate
25) Which functional group would you predict is part of abscisic acid (ABA)?
carboxyl
26) The ionized or dissociated carboxyl group may be written as _____.
-COO-
27)Which of the following groups is capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional group?
(all of the above)

amino hydroxyl carboxylic acid sulfhydryl
28) Choose the pair of terms that complete this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to ______ as ______ is to base.
acid; amino
29) Which of these is a thiol?
none of the above
30) What is ATP's importance in the cell?
ATP stores the potential to react with water, thereby removing a phosphate group and releasing energy for cellular processes.
31)  What are the six most important chemical elements of life?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
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