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Study of the Nervous System
Neuroscience
A specialization in neuroscience primarily concerned with the relationship between behavior, experience, and the functioning of the body.
Physiological Psychology
A specialization in medicine (M.D) concerning with diagnosis and treating mental disorders.
Psychiatry
The scientific study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Clinical Psychology
The study of the structure of the Nervous System.
Neuroanatomy
The study of the influence of drugs on the nervous system.
Neuropharmacology
A specialization in medicine (M.D) concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of the Nervous System diagnosis
Neurology
The study on the function of the Nervous System.
Neurophysiology
Primarily concerned with assessing the abilities of brain damaged individuals.
Neuropsychology
The specific study of neurochemicals, which include neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence neuron function.
Neurochemistry
Believed that the heart is the seed of intellect.
Aristotle
A neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
Franz Gall
Based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules (see modularity of mind).
Phrenology
Means that different parts of the brain carry out different fucntions (e.g., vision, control of voluntary movement, understanding speech, etc.)
Localization of Function
Railroad spark from gun powder caused a rode to go through his left cheek and his brain, which caused alterations in his brain and behavioral activity (Prefrontal cortex was disconnected with the limbic system)
Phineas Gage (1848, Vermont)
A naturally occurring amino acid found in food and made from L-Tyrosine in the human body. L-DOPA is converted into dopamine in the brain and body.
L-dopa
Information processing in the Nervous System.
Neuron
Provides structure and support for the capacity of neurons.
Glia
Wrap around axons in the peripheral N.S. During damage schwann cells form a tunnel for axons for the reattachment of the nerve.
Schwann cell
Give white matter appearance in the brain. Insulation of the axons exclusively in the central nervous system
Oligodendrocytes
One extension going into or out of the soma.
Unipolar Neurons
Two extensions going into or out of the soma.
Bipolar Neurons
Three extensions going into or out of the soma.
Multipolar Neurons
Transmit info about the environment.
Sensory Neuron
Produce skeletal muscle movement (multipolar)
Motor Neuron
The between neurons. Not directly doing anything.
Interneuron
Speeds up rate of info along the axon.
Myelin Sheath
The voltage across the membrane. It arises from the action of ion channels, ion pumps, and ion transporters embedded in the membrane which maintain different ion concentrations inside and outside the cell.
Membrane Potential
Static membrane potential of quiescent cells
Resting Potential
Occurs when the strength of the electric field across the width of a cell membrane increases
Hyperpolarization
Communication occurring down the axon. Travels and release chemicals to other axons, that transmit info to the brain.
Action Potential
The strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus. If the stimulus is any strength above threshold, the nerve or muscle fiber will either give a complete response or no response at all.
All-or-None Law
The amount of stimulus needed to set up an action potential in a nerve cell
Threshold of Excitation
Electrical charged particles (K+ POTASSIUM, Na+ SODIUM)
Ion
Stored within the membrane of the axon and allows Na+ and K+ to pass through.
Ion Channel
More concentrated outside the membrane.
Sodium Ions
More concentrated inside the membrane.
Potassium Ions
1. At rest the outside of the membrane is more positive than the inside. 2. Sodium moves inside the cell causing an action potential, the influx of positive sodium ions makes the inside of the membrane more positive than the outside. 3. Potassium ions flow out of the cell, restoring the resting potential net charges. 4. Sodium ions are pumped out of the cell and potassium ions are pumped into the cell, restoring the original distribution of ions.
Steps in an Action Potential
Transmembrane ion channels that are activated by changes in electrical potential difference near the channel; these types of ion channels are especially critical in neurons, but are common in many types of cells.
Voltage-gated Ion Channel
A way of opening up the communication pathways in the brain that may have become blocked or shut down because of stress.
Neural Integration
Controls the movement of ions. A net transport of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration by random molecular motion.
Diffusion
Controls the movement of ions. Evens out the number of ions on each side of the membrane based on electrical charge.
Electrostatic Pressure
The amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following excitation. The delay in response to the second of two closely spaced psychological stimuli.
Refractory Period
A drug that causes reversible local anesthesia and a loss of nociception. When it is used on specific nerve pathways (nerve block), effects such as analgesia (loss of pain sensation) and paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved.
Local Anesthetics
A means by which action potentials are transmitted along myelinated nerve fibers.
Saltatory Conduction
Short lived depolarizations or hyperpolarizations of an area of membrane. These changes cause local flows of current (current reflects the movement of ions) that decrease with distance.
Graded Potential(receptor potential)
A German pharmacologist whose discovery of acetylcholine helped enhance medical therapy.
Otto Loewi
The neuron that sends messages to other neurons by releasing neurotransmitters into the synapse.
Presynaptic neuron
The neuron that receives messages from other neurons.
Postsynaptic Neuron
Tiny packets containing neurotransmitter molecules or store the various neurotransmitters that are released during calcium-regulated.
Synaptic Vesicles
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