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Tempo
rate of speed, or pace,of the music Ex: Allegro, Moderato, Vivace
Grave
solemn (very, very slow)
Largo
Broad (Very slow)
Adagio
Quite slow
Andante
A walking pace
Moderato
moderate
Allegro
Fast ( cheerful)
Vivace
Lively
Presto
Very fast
Accelerando
Speeding up the pace
Ritardando
Holding back getting slower
Metronome
Device that indicates the tempo, or beats per minute, by sounding a pulse.
Dynamics
Describe the volume, or how loud or soft the music is played ex: Forte, Piano, Fortissimo
pianissimo (pp)
very soft
piano (p)
soft
mezzo piano (mp)
moderately soft
mezzo forte (mf)
moderately loud
forte (f)
loud
fortissimo
very loud
Directions to change dynamics
crescendo decrescendo (< ): growing louder.
Timbre
Tone color. Differences in the sound quality of instruments.
Instrument
generates vibrations and transmits them to the air.
Vocal ranges From Highest to lowest.
Soprano, mezzo-soprano, and alto (short for contra alto) for female voices, and tenor, baritone, and bass for male voices.
Aerophones
Instruments that produce sound by using air. Ex: Flutes, whistles, accordions,bagpipes and horns, in short nearly every wind instrument.
Chordophones
Instruments that produce sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points. The string nay be set in motion by bowing, plucking or striking. EX: violin, harp, guitar, Japanese koto, Chinese hammer dulcimer, and Indian sitar.
Idiophones
Produce sound from the substance of the instrument itself. They may be struck, shaken, scraped, or rubbed. Ex: bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals-in other words, a wide variety of percussion instruments.
Membraphones
Drum-type instruments that are sounded from tightly stretched membranes.
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