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EPICRANIUS
FRONTAL BELLY
BIPARTITE MUSCLE CONSISTING OF FRONTAL AND OCCIPITAL PARTS, WHICH COVERS DOME OF SKULL

ACTION:
WITH APONEUROSIS FIXED RAISES EYEBROWS
EPICRANIOUS
OCCIPITAL BELLIES
FIXES APENEUROSIS AND PULLS SCALP POSTERIORLY
ORBICULARIS OCULII
SMALL MUSCLE; ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH THAT OF ORBICULARIS OCULII

ACTION:
VARIOUS PARTS CAN BE ACTIVATED INDIVIDUALLY; CLOSES EYES, PRODUCES BLINKING, SQUINTING, AND DRAWS EYEBROWS INFERIORLY
CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII
SMALL MUSCLE; ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH THAT OF ORBICULARIS OCULI

ACTION:
DRAWS EYEBROWS MEDIALLY AND INFERIORLY; WRINKLES SKIN OF FOREHEAD  VERTICALLY
LEVATOR LABII SUPEROCILII
THIN MUSCLE BETWEEN ORBICULARIS ORIS AND INFERIOR EYE MARGIN

ACTION:
RAISES AND FURROWS UPPER LIP; OPENS LIPS
ZYGOMATICUS
MAJOR AND MINOR
EXTENDS DIAGONALLY FROM CORNER TO CORNER OF MOUTH TO CHEEKBONE

ACTION:
RAISES LATERAL CORNERS UPWARD (SMILING MUSCLE)
RISORIUS
SLENDER MUSCLE; RUNS INFERIOR AND LATERAL TO ZYGOMATICUS

ACTION:
DRAWS CORNERS OF LIPS LATERALLY; TENSES LIPS; ZYGOMATICUS SYNERGIST
DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS
SMALL MUSCLE FROM LOWER LIP TO MANDIBLE

ACTION:
DRAWS LOWER LIP INFERIORLY
DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS
SMALL MUSCLE LATERAL TO DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS

ACTION:
ZYGOMATICUS ANTAGONIST; DRAWS CORNERS OF MOUTH DOWNWARD AND LATERALLY
ORBICULARIS ORIS
MULITILAYERED MUSCLE OF LIPS WITH FIBERS THAT RUN IN MANY DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS; MOST RUN CIRCULARLY

ACTION:
CLOSES MOUTH; PURSES AND PROTUDES LIPS (KISSING AND WHISTLING MUSCLE)
MENTALIS
ONE OF THE MUSCLE PAIR FORMING V-SHAPED MUSCLE MASS ON CHIN

ACTION:
PROTUDES LOWER LIP' WRINKLES CHIN
BUCCINATOR
PRINCIPAL MUSCLE OF CHEEK; RUNS HORIZONTALLY, DEEP TO THE MASSETER

ACTION:
DRAWS CORNER OF MOUTH LATERALLY; COMPRESSES CHEEK (AS IN WHISTLING); HOLDS FOOD BETWEEN DEETH DURING CHEWING
MASSETER
COVERS LATERAL ASPECT OF MADIBULAR RAMUS; CAN BE PAALPATED ON FORCIBLE CLOSURE OF JAWS

ACTION:
CLOSES JAW AND ELEVATES MANDIBLE
TEMPORALIS
FAN-SHAPED MUSCLE LYING OVER PARTS OF FRONTAL, PARIETAL, AND TEEMPORAL BONES

ACTION:
CLOSES JAW; ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
MEDIAL PTERYGOID
RUNS ALONG INTERNAL (MEDIAL) SURFACE OF MANDIBLE (THUS LARGELY CONCEALED BY THAT BONE)

ACTION:
SYNERGIST OF TEMPORALIST AND MASSETER; ELEVATES MANDIBLE; IN CONJUNCTION WITH LATERAL PYTERYGOID, AIDS IN GRINDING MOVEMENT
LATERAL PTERYGOID
SUPERIOR TO MEDIAL PTERYGOID

ACTION:
PROTRACTS JAW (MOVES IN ANTERIORLY); IN CONJUNCTION WITH MEDIAL PTERYGOID, AIDS IN GRINDING MOVEMENT OF TEETH
PLASTYMA
UNPAIRED MUSCLE; THIN, SHEETLIKE SUPERFICIAL NECK MUSCLE BUT PLAYS ROLE IN FACIAL EXPRESSOIN

ACTION:
DEPRESSES MANDIBLE; PULLS LOWER LIP BACK AND DOWN (I.E., PRODUCES DOWNWARD SAG OF MOUTH)
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
TWO HEADED MUSCLE LOCATED DEEP TO PLATYSMA ON ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF NECK; FLESHY PART ON EITHER SIDE INDICATE LIMITS OF ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR TRAINGLE OF NECK

ACTION:
SIMULTANEOUS CONTRACTION OF BOTH MUSCLES OF PAIR CAUSES FLEXION OF NECK FOWARD, GENERALLY AGAINST RESISTANCE (AS WHEN LYING ON BACK); ACTING INDEPENDENTLY, ROTATE HEAD TOWARD SHOULDER ON OPPOSITE SIDE
SCALENES
ANTERIOR, MIDDLE, AND POSTERIOR
LOCATED MORE ON LATERAL THAN ANTERIOR NECK; DEEP TO PLATYSMA AND STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

ACTION:
FLEX AND SLIGHTLY ROTATE NECK; ELEVATE RIBS 1-2 (AID IN INSPIRATION)
DIGASTRIC
CONSISTS OF TWO BELLIES UNITED BY AN INTERMEDIATE TENDON; ASSUMES A V-SHAPED CONFIGURATION UNDER CHIN

ACTION:
ACTING IN CONCERT, ELEVATES HYOID BONE; OPENS MOUTH AND DEPRESS MANDIBLE
STYLOLHYOID
SLENDER MUSCLE PARALLELS POSTERIOR BORDER OF DIGASTRIC; BELOW ANGLE OF JAW

ACTION:
ELEVATES AND RETRACTS HYOID BONE
MYLOHYOID
JUST DEEP TO DIGASTRIC; FORMS FLOOR OF MOUTH

ACTION:
ELEVATES HYOID BONE AND BASE OF TOUNGE DURING SWALLOWING
STERNOHYOID
RUNS MOST MEDIALLY ALONG NECK; STRAPLIKE

ACTION:
ACTING WITH STERNOTHYROID AND OMOHYOID (ALL INFERIOR TO HYOID BONE), DEPRESSES LARYNX AND HYOID BONE IF MANDIBLE IS FIXED; MAY ALSO FLEX SKULL
STERNOTHYROID
LATERAL AND DEEP TO STERNOHYOID

ACTION:
DEPRESSES LARYNX AND HYOID BONE IF MANDIBLE IS FIXED; MAY ALSO FLEX SKULL
OMOHYOID
STRAPLIKE WITH TWO BELLIES; LATERAL TO STERNOHYOID

ACTION:
DEPRESSES LARYNX AND HYOID BONE IF MANDIBLE IS FIXED; MAY ALSO FLEX SKULL
THYROHYOID
APPEARS AS A SUPERIOR CONTINUATION OF STERNOTHYROID MUSCLE

ACTION:
DEPRESSES HYOID BONE; ELEVATES LARYNX IF HYOID IS FIXED
PECTORALIS MAJOR
LARGE FAN-SHAPED MUSCLE COVERING UPPER PORTION OF CHEST

ACTION:
PRIME MOVER OF ARM FLEXION; ADDUCTS MEDIALLY ROTATES ARM; WITH ARM FIXED, PULLS CHEST UPWARD (THUS ALSO ACTS IN FORCED INSPIRATION)
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
FAN-SHAPED MUSCLE DEEP TO SCAPULA; BENEATH AND INFERIOR TO PECTORAL MUSCLES ON LATERAL RIB CAGE

ACTION:
MOVES SCAPULA FORWARD TOWARD CHEST WALL; ROTATES SCAPULA, CAUSING INFERIOR ANGLE TO MOVE LATERALLY AND UPWARD; ABDUCTION AND RAISING OF ARM
DELTIOD
FLESHY TRIANGULAR MUSCLE FORMING SHOULDER MUSCLE MASS; INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE

ACTION:
ACTING AS AA WHOLE. PRIME MOVER OF ARM ABDUCTION; WHEN ONLY SPECIFIC FIBERS ARE ACTIVEE, CAN AID IN FLEXION, AND ROTATION OF HUMERUS
PECTORALIS MINOR
FLAT, THIN MUSCLE DIRECTLY BENEATH AND OBSCURED BY PECTORALIS MAJOR

ACTION:
WITH RIBS FIXED, DRAWS SCAPULA FORWARD FIXED, DRAWS RIB CAGE SUPERIORLY
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL
11 PAIRS LIE BETWEEN RIBS; FIBERS RUN DEEP OBLIQUELY OBLIQUELY DOWNWARD AND FORWARD TOWARD STERNUM

ACTION:
DRAWS RIBS TOGETHER TO DEPRESS RIB CAGE; AIDS IN FORCED EXPIRATION; ANTAGONIST TO  EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
DIAPHRAGM
BROAD MUSCLE; FORMS FLOOR OF THORACIC CAVITY; DOME-SHAPED IN RELAXED  STATE; FIBERS CONVERGE FROM MARGINS OF THORACIC CAGE TOWARD A CENTRAL TENDON

ACTION:
PRIME MOVER OF INSPIRATION FLATTENS ON CONTRACTION, INCREASE VERTICAL DIMENTIONS OF THORAX; INCREASES INTRAABDOMINAL PRESSURE
RECTUS ABDOMINIS
MEDIAL SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE; FIBERS RUN DOWNWARD AND MEDIALLY; ENSHEATHED BY AN APONEUROSIS

ACTION:
FLEXES AND ROTATES VERTERBRAL COLUMN; INCREASES ABDOMINAL PRESSURE; FIXES AND DEPRESSES RIBS; STABILIZES PELVIS DURING WALKING; USED IN SIT-UPS AND CURLS
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
MOST SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE, EXTENDS FROM PUBIS TO RIB CAGE; ENSHEATHED BY APONEUROSES OF OBLIQUE MUSCLES; SEGMENTED

ACTION:
FLEXES AND ROTATES VERTERBRAL COLUMN; INCREASES ABDOMINAL PRESSURE; FIXES AND DEPRESSES RIBS; STABILIZES PELVIS DURING WALKING; USED IN SIT-UPS AND CURLS.  ALSO AIDS MUSCLES OF BACK IN TRUNK ROTATION AND LATERAL FLEXION; USED IN OBLIQUE CURLS
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
MOST FIBERS RUN AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THOSE OF EXTERNAL OBLIQUE, WHICH IT UNDERLIES

ACTION:
FLEXES AND ROTATES VERTERBRAL COLUMN; INCREASES ABDOMINAL PRESSURE; FIXES AND DEPRESSES RIBS; STABILIZES PELVIS DURING WALKING; USED IN SIT-UPS AND CURLS.  ALSO AIDS MUSCLES OF BACK IN TRUNK ROTATION AND LATERAL FLEXION; USED IN OBLIQUE CURLS
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
DEEPEST MUSCLE OF ABDOMINAL WALL; FIBERS RUN HORIZONTALLY

ACTION:
COMPRESSES ABDOMINAL CONTENTS
TRAPEZIUS
MOST SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE OF POSTERIOR THORAX; VERY BROAD ORIGIN AND INSERTION

ACTION:
EXTENDS HEAD; RAISES, ROTATES, AND RETRACTS (ADDUCTS) SCAPULA AND STABILIZES IT; SUPERIOR FIBERS ELEVATE SCAPULA (AS IN SHRUGGING THE SHOULDERS); INFERIOR FIBERS DEPRESS IT
LATISSIMUS DORSI
BROAD FLAT MUSCLE OF LOWER BACK (LUMBAR REGION); EXTENSIVE SUPERFICIAL ORIGINS

ACTION:PRIME  MOVER OF ARM EXTENSION; ADDUCTS AND MEDIALLY ROTATES ARM; DEPRESSES SCAPULA; BRINGS ARM DOWN IN POWER STROKE, AS IN STRIKING A BLOW
INFRASPINATUS
PATIALLY COVERED BY DELTOID AND TRAPEZIUS; A ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE

ACTION:
LATERAL ROTATION OF HUMERUS; HELPS HOLD HEAD OF HUMERUS IN GLENOID CAVITY; STABILIZES SHOULDER
TERES MINOR
SMALL MUSCLE INFERIOR TO INFRASPINATUS; A ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE

ACTION:
LATERAL ROTATION OF HUMERUS; HELPS HOLD HEAD OF HUMERUS IN GLENOID CAVITY; STABILIZES SHOULDER
TERES MAJOR
LOCATED INFERIOR TO TERES MINOR

ACTION:
EXTENDS, MEDIALLY ROTATES, AND ADDUCTS HUMERUS; SYNERGIST OF LATISSIMUS DORSI
SUPRASPINATUS
OBSCURED BY TRAPEZIUS; A ROTATOOR CUFF MUSCLE

ACTION:
ASSISTS ABDUCTION OF HUMERUS; STABILIZES SHOULDER JOINT
LAVATOR SCAPULAE
LOCATED AT BACK AND SIDE OF NECK, DEEP TO TRAPEZIUS

ACTION:
ELEVATES AND ADDUCTS SCAPULA; WITH FIXED SCAPULA, FLEXES NECK TO THE SAME SIDE
RHOMBOIDS
MAJOR AND MINOR
BENEATH TRAPEZIUS AND INFERIOR TO LEVATOR SCAPULAE; RHOMBOIDS MINOR IS THE MOST SUPERIOR MUSCLE

ACTION:
PULLS SCAPULA MEDIALLY (RETRACTION); SSTABILIZES SCAPULA; ROTATES GLENOID CAVITY DOWNWARD
SEMISPINALIS
DEEP COMPOSITE MUSCLE OF THE BACK- THORACIS, CERVICIS AND CAPITIS PORTIONS

ACTION:
ACTING TOGETHER EXTENDS HEAD AND VERTEBRAL COLUMN; ACTING INDEPENDENTLY (RIGHT VS. LEFT) CAUSES ROTATION TOWARD THE OPPOSITE SIDE
ERECTOR SPINAE
A LONG TRIPARTITE MUSCLE COMPOSED OF ILIOCOSTALIS (LATERAL), AND SPINALIS (MEDIAL) MUSCLE COLUMNS; SUPERFICIAL TO SEMISPINALIS MUSCLES; EXTENDS FROMM PELVIS TO HEAD

ACTION:
EXTENDS AND BENDS THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY; FIBERS OF  THE LONGISSIMUS ALSO EXTEND HEAD
SPELNIUS
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE (CAPITIS AND CERVICIS PARTS) EXTENDING FROM UPPER THORACIC REGION TO SKULL

ACTION:
AS A GROUP, EXTEND OR HYPEREXTEND HEAD; WHEN ONLY ONE SIDE IS ACTIVE, HEAD IS ROTATED ANS BEND TOWARD THE SAME SIDE
QUADRATUS LUMBORUM
FORMS GREATER PORTION OF POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL

ACTION:
EACH FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY; TOGETHER EXTEND THE LUMBAR SPINE AND FIX RIB 12; MAINTAINS UPRIGHT POSTURE
TRICEPS BRACHII
SOLE, LARGE FLESHY MUSCLE OF POSTERIOR HUMERUS; THREE-HEADED ORIGIN

ACTION:
POWERFUL FOREARM EXTENSOR; ANTAGONIST OF FOREARM FLEXORS (BRACHIALIS AND BBICEPS BRACHII)
ANCONEUS
SHORT TRIANGULAR MUSCLE BLENDED WITH TRICEPS

ACTION:
ABDUCTS ULNA DURING FOREARM PRONATION; EXTENDS ELBOW
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