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Digestive System
Includes everything from the mouth to the anus
Degulation= swallowing
Peristalsis= contraction of smooth muscle to propel food through the system
Visceral Peritoneum: membrane that covers digestive organs
Parietal pertoneum: membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Retroperitoneal: behind or not covered by the peritoneum; Includes: kidneys, bladder, ureter
Aorta, Vena cava
Mesentery: membrane that helps hold the intestines in place
Specialized Cells
Mucosal Cells: Columnar cells; Functions: secrete enzymes, hormones, and absorb nutrients
Goblet Cells: secrete mucus
Mesenteric Plexus Cells: layer of nerves
Mucosa: forms folds and ridges in the mucosa
LAmina Propria: loose connective tissue, part of the mucosa
Submucosa: dense connective tissue
Muscularis Externa: causes peristalsis=rhythmic waves of contractions
Serosa: loose connective tissue and squamous cells
2 jaws:
Mandible: lower
Labial frenulum
Connects lips to the gums
Lingual Frenulum
connects tongue to the floor of the mouth
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
Not attached to any bone
Change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
Attach to bones
Change the tongue's position
Salivary Glands
Water, mucus, salts
Amylase: break down starch
Lysozyme: inhibits bacteria
Growth factor
Deciduous= baby, 20, lose and replaced
Permanent= 32
Incisors: flat teeth at front of mouth, central and lateral, used for biting
Cuspids: cuspids, pointed, corners of lips, used for tearing
Premolars: 2 sets, between cuspids and molars, used for tearing
Molars: 12, most posterior, used for grinding
Parts of Tooth
Crown: part of tooth above the gum
Root: part of tooth below the gum
Enamel: hard mineralized covering of the crown
Pulp: connective tissues inside the tooth, contains blood vessels and nerves
Dentin: bone-like material inside tooth, in between enamel and pulp
Periodontal Ligament: ligament that holds the tooth in its socket
Forensic Dentists
can determine the age of an individual based on their teeth
Mouth Problems
Mumps: viral infection of the parotid gland, children are vaccinated against mump;MMR
Ankyloglossia: Tongue-tied, abnormally short lingual frenulum, causes speech impedient
Dental Caries: cavities
Halitosis: bad breath
Impacted Tooth: tooth that does not erupt; embedded in jaw bone  
Gingivitis: Swollen gums; increased blood in the area
Plaque: Thin film of sugar and bacteria that clings to teeth
Tartar: calculus; calcified plaque
Aphthous Ulcer: canker, ulcer of oral mucosa, last 7 to 10 days, more common in women, stress related

Temperomandibular Joint Disorder
The joint itself is called TMJ
Any problem associated with it is TMD
Very painful
Muscle spasms
Grinding of teeth
Causes teeth to flatten and crack
Treatment: night guard
Root Canal
Complete removal of the pulp
Dry mouth
Tube that connects the throat to the stomach
Stomach Anatomy
Lesser curvature: covered by the lesser omentum (membrane)
Greater curvature: covered by greater omentum; contains fat and lymph nodes; connects to intestines
Sphincters: Cardiac sphincter=lower esophageal sphincter; Pyloric sphincter
Internal: rugae= ridges inside; muscle layers= longitudinal, circular, oblique

Duodenum: 1st section of small intestine; connect to the stomach; follows pyloric sphincter; 10" lon
Jejunum: middle section, 8ft long
Ileum: 3rd part, 12 ft long, joins to colon
Plicaecircularis: ridges in small intestine
Villi: finger-like extensions on the plicae
Cecum: pouch where large and small intestine meet; contains appendix

Tenia coli: strip of muscle along the olon
Haustra: segments or bulges in the large intestine
Anal Sphincters
Ring of muscle that control the flow of waste out of the colon
Bacterial Flora
Intestines have bacgteria naturally living in them
Kept in balance so that no particular type overcomes the other
Otherwise would lead to distress
Hiatal Hernia
Part of stomach prtrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity
Corrected by surgery
Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease
Acid from the stomach leaks superiorly to the esophagus
Severe, chronic heatburn
Inflammation of the stomach
Increased WBSs in area trying to repair inflammation
Peptic Ulcers
Ulcers in the stomach or proximal intestinal ling
Increased acid production in the stomach
Treatment= antibiotics
Inflammation of the intestines
Inflammatory bowel disease
Pyloric Stenosis
Abnormal constriction of the pyloric sphincter
Food cannont pass inot the intestines form the stomach
Newborns: excessive vomiting, weight loss in the first few weeks
You can survie using only 10-20% of your liver
Lobule: filters blood entering the liver, makes bile, sends bile to gall bladder
Acinar cells: make enzymes important for digestion
Islet of Langerhans: cells that make hormones that control blood sugar levels, insulin
Scarring of the liver
Usually due to alcohol abuse over many years
Usually fatal due to liver/kidney failure
Fluid in the abdominal cavity
Can be sign of liver damage
Result of cirrhosis
Inflammation of the liver
Type B has a vaccine available to those at risk
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Calcifications that develop in the gall bladder
Very painful
Treatment is cholecystectomy= removal of gallbladder
Patient usually 4 Fs: Fat, Female, Fertile, Forty
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