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Bronfenbrenner
He developed 1. The systems model of human development Bioecological Model 1. Emphasizes that human development is dynamic, interactive process bioecological model-development in social environments of varying degrees of closeness to individual and interconnectedness Microsystem 1. The activities, roles, and interactions of an individual in that person’s immediate setting Mesosystem 1. The interrelationships connect various elements of the microsystem (parent-teacher conference) Exosystem 1. The social settings or organizations beyond the child’s immediate experience that affect the child Macrosystem 1. The laws, values, and customs of the society in which the individual lives Chronosystem 1. The ways in which all of these systems interrelate to each other across time
Life Expectancy
Life Expectancy – 76.5 years (According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 2000) Differences in Life Expectancies between females and males, among various racial and ethnic groups, and between social classes 1. White males have a Life Expectancy of 75 years 2. Females have a Life Expectancy of almost 80 years Female hormones may guard them from high blood pressure and heart problems Less likely than men to have a violent death or accident Less likely to suffer from the effects of smoking, drinking, and other health hazards3. African Americans have an average life expectancy of 68 years for males and 75 for women 4. Life Expectancies have been rising and are higher in more affluent areas. Vulnerability to death varies over the life span1. Infants most vulnerable to premature death.Infant mortality rates in the United States has dropped significantly Currently about 7 out of every 1,000 live births Infant deaths are commonly connected with problems during the time surrounding birth and congenital abnormalities2. Leading cause of death among preschool and school-age children is accidents, including car accidents, poisonings, falls, fires, and drownings 3. Leading causes of death among adolescents are accidents, homicides, and suicides 4. Leading causes of death among young adults are HIV infection, accidents, and cancers 5. 45-64 age group, the onset of chronic diseases becomes the leading cause of death 6. Chronic conditions rises consistently with age, which raises overall death rates significantlyHeart disease accounts for 35 percent of deaths among adults 65 and older, followed by cancers and cerebrovascular diseases or strokes
Turner X Syndrome
Occurs only 1. In women 2. Results from a missing X Chromosome Development 1. Abnormal secondary sexual characteristic (e.g. no menstruation, no ovulation) 2. Develop short stature and webbed necks 3. Cardiovascular anomalies 4. A shield-shaped chest with wide-spaced nipples 5. An increased carrying angle of the arms 6. Mental retardation and learning disorders common Also known as 1. Bonnevie-Ullrich Syndrome 2. Monosomy X Treatment includes 1. Hormonal treatment 2. Surgical removal of neck webbing, and to correct cardiovascular issues
Klinefelter Syndrome
Results from 1. An extra X chromosome (XXY) 2. Occurs only in men Men withthis syndrome 1. Tend to be taller 2. Somewhat lower intelligence scores (IQ around 90), andhave abnormal development of secondary sex characteristics (e.g., partialbreast development, small testicles, high pitched voices) 3. Have smaller testicles and are sterile 4. Typically marry, but unable to have children Effects 1. One in every 500 to 1,000 male
Prader-Willi Syndrome
This syndrome is 1. A recessive disorder that occurs in about 1 of 10,000 to 15,000 people 2. Typically caused by a mutation of the 15th pair of chromosomes Hypothalamus 1. The regulation of food and hunger does not function properly Symptoms include 1. Insatiable hunger 2. Delayed motor skills and cognitive abilities 3. Low muscletone 4. Short stature 5. Incomplete sexual development May 1. Have mild mental retardation 2. Hoard objects 3. Be repetitive in speech 4. Be subject to early death likely if eating habits not controlled
Color Blindness
About 1. Color Blindness is a condition in which a person is unable to distinguish one color from another 2. Red-green color deficiency most common form; sex-linked (affecting only men) Problems distinguishing reds and greens 3. Blue-yellow color deficiency less common; autosomal (may affect men and women) 4. Deficiency may be partial (affecting only some shades of a color) or complete (affecting all shades of the color) 5. Genetic problem affecting approximately one in 10 men 6. Few women affected by Color Blindness 7. Testing during eye exam 8. No known treatment How it occurs 1. Color Blindness occurs when there is a problem with the color-sensing materials in certain nerve cells of the eyes 2. Cones are nerve cells containing color-sensing materials; Color Blindness occurs when one of these color pigments is missing or defective 3. Results from mutated recessive gene on the X-chromosome Genetics 1. Genotype – characteristic observable or not 2. Phenotype – observable traits
Down Syndrome
This disorder 1. Involves three chromosomes on chromosome 21 (trisomy-21) 2. It is therefore an autosomal (non sex-linked) disorder Characterized by 1. Mental retardation; a broad skull, slanted eyes, physical deformities, and reduced activity Occurs in 1. About one in 800 overall births 2. Less than one in 1,000 for women under 30 3. About one in 25 risk for 45-year-old mother 4. Greater risk for mothers younger than 16 and older than 34
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
FAS 1. Is a condition that affects children whose mothers drank alcohol during their pregnancies 2. Exposure to alcohol during fetal development causes brain damage 3. Infants prenatally exposed to one drink per day have double the risk of developing mental handicaps 4. One incident of binge-drinking (five or more alcoholic drinks) can also lead to FAS in certain cases Characterized by a cluster of symptoms, including 1. Facial abnormalities 2. Delayed growth 3. Impaired social skills 4. Lower than average intelligence 5. In some cases, the children have mental retardation 6. Common facial traits include widely separated eyes and a flattened nose Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) 1. Related condition caused when a mother is drinking at least one ounce of alcohol per day during her pregnancy. 2. A child with FAE exhibits impairment in cognitive and motor abilities, but at a less severe level than a child with FAS


Premature Infant Development


Premature birth1. Risk factor associated with prenatal development   Prematurity Common Cause1. The most common of which is multiple births, in which two or more infants are born at the same time.   Others causes1. Disabilities of the fetus, maternal disease, maternal smoking or other drug use, and malnutrition.   Low birth weight (LBW)1. Most common indicator of prematurity   Definition 1. Infants born before the 37-week gestation period is considered preterm. 2. Many preterm infants have low birth weight Full-term infant who is low birth weight is considered small-for-date. 1. Fetal malnutrition is one cause for small-for-date babies. Lastly Effects 1. Premature infants experience difficulties that can lead to problems later in life such as delays in social skill development and behavioral problems in school. Longitudinal study on mothers and preterm infant interactions 1. Results suggest that mothers with the most vulnerable infants were able produce more positive attitudes about the child and the parenting role. 2. Finding further suggested that by age two, relatively healthy but very low birth weight infants reach a developmental status that is comparable to that of full-term infants, but which they achieve by different developmental means.
Teratogens
Teratogen 1. Any agent that a fetus is exposed to that causes a birth defect. 2. These include drugs, environmental substances, stress of themother, and the age of the biological parents. 3. All fetuses are exposed to some type of teratogen, but not allchildren develop disabilities due to the agents. 4. Effects of teratogens depend on various factors, including theamount of substance, type of substance and frequency of substance. Germinal phase(first two weeks following conception) 1. Teratogens may prevent zygote from attaching to uterine wall. Embryonic period(twoweeks to eight weeks following conception) 1. A critical period of development and structural damages aremost likely to occur during this time if an embryo is exposed to teratogens. Fetal period(from two months past conception until the child is born) 1. Is a critical period of organ development. Problems that occur during a critical period can be permanent

Hand Preference

Handedness 1. The preference a person has in using one hand over the other 2. Noticeable in infants 3. Observed in infants in the womb 4. Has also been demonstrated among children as young as seven months old Across the world 1. 90 percent of people are right-handed 2. Children tend to be committed to hand preference by the end of preschool years 3. More boys than girls are left-handed 4. Genetics have a strong influence

Eye Coordination

Vision not well developed at birth 1. Infants are able to see colors, specifically white, green, and red 2. At four months, children can see many more colors Binocular vision 1. Capacity for depth and perception 2. Develops at about four to five months of age 3. Vision develops through critical periods Infants 1. Prefer face-like visual stimuli 2. At one month can distinguish mother’s face

Neonatal Reflexes

Reflex - movement that is not learned and involuntary in response to a stimulus. Most reflexes disappear during the first year Different types of reflexes 1. Survival reflexes - biologically programmed behaviors, such as breathing, rooting, and sucking, that are related to the neonate’s ability to survive 2. Primitive reflexes - biologically programmed behaviors without immediate survival value, but which may have been associated with survival in our evolutionary past Primitive reflexes include the Babinski Reflex, grasping Reflex, Moro Reflex, swimming Reflex, and stepping Reflex Common Infant Reflexes 1. Moro Reflex - involves the baby extending the legs, arms, and fingers, and arching the back in response to being startled 2. Rooting Reflex - characterized by the baby turning the head, opening the mouth and beginning sucking movements in response to the baby’s check being stroked with a finger or nipple 3. Babinski Reflex - characterized by the baby spreading out the toes and twisting the foot when the sole of the baby’s foot is stroked 4. Grasp Reflex - the baby makes a firm fist around an object that is placed in the hand 5. Swimming Reflex - infants will attempt to swim in a coordinated way if placed in water in a prone position
Malnutrition
About Malnutrition 1. State of having too few nutrients for the body to work properly 2. Detrimental to people at all stages of life 3. Especially detrimental to infants still in the womb In utero 1. Human body is experiencing rapid growth; without necessary nutrients likely to experience damaging effects 2. Malnutrition can be incredibly harmful to the developing brain 3. The third trimester is a critical period for children's brain growth Damage to the brain may be permanent 4. May experience low birth weight, a slow growth rate, and impairments in social development Macronutrient Malnutrition 1. Results from a diet that contains too few calories 2. Leading cause of death of children under the age of 5 3. Most harmful during sensitive periods of development; developing fetus through age 2 Micronutrient Malnutrition 1. Deficiency of certain vitamins and/or minerals 2. Common among the poor, but present in all economic levels 3. When insufficiencies lead to iron-deficient anemia social and language development may be impeded When iron is supplemented it can improve social development, but does not show an effect an language development, thus effects of anemia on language may be permanent Maramus 1. Type of Malnutrition caused by a severe insufficiency of total calories 2. Children weigh less than 60% of recommended weight for age 3. Co-occurs with parasitic infection and chronic diarrhea making difficult to treat 4. Can lead to permanent brain damage Kwashiorkor 1. Type of severe Malnutrition caused by insufficient protein 2. Can lead to permanent brain damage
Play



About Play 1. Intrinsically motivated behavior that promotes cognitive development 2. Every aspect of development is enhanced through Play 3. Children develop important physical, emotional, and social skills 4. Play promotes growth of sensory-perceptual capabilities and physical skills, and endless opportunities to exercise and expand intellectual skills 5. Play becomes more interactive and social as children become older Piaget 1. Play is child's work Parallel Play 1. Each child playing independently, although in proximity to each other Children under the age of 2 Dramatic Play 1. Pretend, imitate, role Play, and learn to interact Children around age 4 Make-believe Play 1. Children might imagine themselves to be other people or creatures 2. Children develop language, reasoning, and memory skills Wandering and hovering 1. Signs of concern in Play

Infants' Crying

From birth 1. Infants are prone to cry First cry after birth 1. Is a sign that air hasentered into their lungs Cries 1. Can be indicators of central nervous system functioning 2. Infants develop cries to vocalize differentneeds Three to four infant cries 1. Rhythmic cry- most common (infant mayuse other cry and then return to rhythmic cry) 2. Hungercry- rhythmic cry may overlap with hunger cry 3. Angercry- loud in nature 4. Paincry- preliminary cry followed breath-holding Mothers 1. Most responsive to the hunger and pain cries 2.Tend to be more responsive to the criesthan fathers are 3. Mothers and fathers are equally morediscriminating of the cries of their own baby than of other infants Stress 1. May be a relationship between stress in expectant mothers and crying innewborns 2. Infants exposed to stress prenatallydemonstrate more crying/fussing behavior

Childhood Sleep Disorders

Types and occurrences 1. Includes sleep deprivation, night terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, sleep-onset association disorder, and primary nocturnal enuresis 2. Occurs most often in the preschool and school-age years 3. Usually a family history for the disorder 4. Male patients outnumber females by a ratio of four to one Sleep deprivation 1. When the child is not getting enough sleep 2. This is a common problem and can lead to more serious problems Sleep terror disorder (night terrors) 1. Occurs approximately 90 minutes into sleep, during the "deep sleep" stage 2. Child suddenly sits bolt upright and screams 3. Inconsolable for up to 30 minutes 4. Generally occurs in children 3 to 8 years of age 5. Episodes rarely last longer than five minutes and are not remembered in the morning 6. Retrograde amnesia regarding the episodes Sleep walking disorder and sleep talking 1. Involves the child sitting up in bed with eyes open but is "unseeing." 2. Sleep walking and sleep talking tend to substitute for sleep terror during the school-age years 3. These disorders occur in the school-age child and are more common in boys than girls 4. Movements and speech are rambling and unfocused 5. Usually conditions resolve spontaneously Sleep-onset association disorder: child or infant just does not sleep 1. Child will not go to sleep unless he or she is with the parent, is being nursed, or is receiving other various comforts from an outside source Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting 1. One of the most prevalent and persistent sleep problems in children 2. Primary enuresis - child has never been persistently dry through the night 3. Secondary enuresis - the child starts wetting the bed after one year of continence. Primary enuresis is more common and less likely to have a pathologic cause
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD is marked by one or more of the following 1. Inattention 2. Hyperactivity 3. Impulsivity a. Generally diagnosed after age 7 years old b. The traits of ADHD usually lessen for children as they develop into adulthood. However, many adults continue to have difficulty with some symptoms Most often correspond with ADHD 1. Oppositional Defiant Disorder 2. Conduct Disorder 3. These are diagnosed in almost 50 percent of clinic-referred children with ADHD a. Diagnosed more often in boys b. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter implicated in ADHD c. ADHD is treated using both behavioral techniques and medication d. Stimulant medication is the most common treatment for ADHD today Medications used to treat ADHD include stimulants such as 1. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta) 2. D-amphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat) 3. Pemoline (Cylert) are also helpful in the majority of cases (Barlow & Durand, 2005) Alternative medication 1. Strattera is a non-stimulant medication used to treat ADHD 2. Antidepressants, such as Wellbutrin (bupropion), and imipramine
Autism
Autism is 1. A pervasive developmental disorder Characterized by 1. Impairment in social interaction, and communication Individuals may experience stereotyped repetitive behaviors 1. Rocking 2. Swaying Signs 1. Must be present before a child is age three for a diagnosis to be met The cause of Autism 1. Has been related to genetic factors 2. The first four years of a child’s life are critical Treatment 1. Behavior therapy accompanied with one-on-one attention: children are praised and rewarded immediately after learning appropriate behaviors, such as direct eye contact during play Learning language 1. Appears to be a key factor for children combating Autism 2. Children may be able to learn how to communicate meaningfully and act in socially appropriate ways
Diabetes
This disease 1. Is a chronic disease in which the body does not produce enough insulin Two major forms of Diabetes 1. Type I Diabetes (formally known as insulin dependent or juvenile Diabetes) treated with insulin 2. Type II Diabetes is associated with obesity and unhealthy lifestyle Treatment 1. Includes healthy eating and physical activity Long-term effects include 1. Damage tothe cardiovascular system, kidneys, and eyes. Without treatment, Diabetes can result in a coma, which can be life-threatening Common symptoms include 1. Excessive thirst 2. Urination Risk factors include 1. Genetic predisposition 2. Being overweight There is an increased number of children being diagnosed with TypeII Diabetes

Children and Depression

Approximately 1. Eight percent of adolescents suffer from moderate to severe depression 2. 15-20 percent of college students report having had a period of serious depression Females 1. Are more susceptible to depression than males (about twice as many female adolescents depression diagnoses than male adolescents) Various psychological variables associated with depression 1. Family issues, such as having financial problems 2. Emotionally unavailable parents 3. Discord within the family 4. Having a parent who is depressed increases children’s risk of also becoming depressed Risk factors include 1. Loss of a loved one 2. Lack of a best friend 3. Experience of rejection Depression likely linked to a combination of risk factors that interact, including 1. Biological 2. Psychological 3. Social-systems variables

Children and Rejection

Peer relationships 1. Crucial to development 2. Accepted or rejected by peers Several groups of acceptance 1. Popular   Children most liked and tend to be friendly and able to offer positive remarks about other people         2. Controversial   Children liked by some of their peers and disliked by others       3. Aggressive-rejected   Children who are consistently disliked by their peers   4. Withdrawn-rejected   Children who are consistently disliked by their peers   5. Neglected   Children neither liked nor disliked, but remain unnoticed Adolescents 1. Tend to evaluate each other more negatively, which can worsen an unpopular child's social situation 2. Continued social difficulty can have the effect of negatively impacting children’s academics, behaviors, and social skills 3. May result in psychological maladjustment for some individuals, even as they age into adulthood 4. Popular children are more outgoing, communicative, cooperative and generally more academically successful Girls 1. Exhibit an "enabling style" that increases intimacy and equality by expressing agreement, making suggestions, and providing support 2. Female friendships facilitate intimacy and emotionality Boys 1. Tend to exhibit a "restricting style" that is characterized by bragging, contradicting, and interrupting 2. Male friendships are based on shared activities and interests
Buffering Hypothesis
About Buffering Hypothesis 1. Relationships can act as a buffer against stress 2. More buffers results in less perceived stress 3. Quality of buffers is more important than quantity of buffers 4. Person must perceive buffers as valuable in order to be effective 5. Relationships are the most effective buffers 6. Relationships help redefine or reframe a stressful situation and enable greater sense of hope
Lev Vygotsky
Lev Vygotsky 1. Developed the theory of child development using a constructivist approach 2. Based on social contexts/social interactions which emphasized construction of knowledge through social interactions Cognitive development 1. Unfolds as children experiment with the world Culture's tools 1. Refer to common items or symbolic systems found in one's culture 2. The use of these tools change the way we organize and think about the world and cognition can only be understood in the context of culture Zone of proximal development (ZPD) 1. A concept that children's cognitive growth develops through participation in activities slightly beyond their competence with the help of adults or older children Scaffolding 1. The progressive structuring of tasks by parents or others so that the level of task difficulty is appropriate Private speech 1. Children's internal language used to direct their behavior Self talk 1. Allows children to advance cognitively 2. Seen in ages 4-7

Early Maturation

General 1. Increased hormone production in adolescence produces dramatic growth spurt 2. Puberty- biological change that ultimately results in reaching sexual maturity and becoming capable of reproduction Rate of Growth 1. Girls - The peak rate of growth for height is just under 12 years 2. Boys - The peak rate of growth is 13.4 years Varying advantages and disadvantages to Early Maturation 1. Early maturing girls and late maturing boys tend to experience the most difficulties 2. Girls May be teased for the few years that they are ahead Often less popular than her prepubescent classmates Depression and anxiety are likely Tend to make friends with older peer groups Body image problems and more conflicts with parents 3. Boys Positive psychological adjustment overall: better scholastic performance, better self-image, greater popularity, more socially competent, self-assured, and attractive Earlier involvement in substance use and other deviant behaviors in comparison to boys who mature "on time"
Puberty
Definition 1. The attainment of sexual maturity in males and females 2. Prior to puberty, boys and girls are typically similar in height, weight, and strength; these commonalities allow them to compete in sports at an equal level 3. Females usually begin puberty between ages 10-12 years 4. Males usually begin puberty between ages 12-16 years for males Females 1. Generally enter into puberty earlier than males 2. There is a period in which girls may be taller and weigh more than their male peers 3. Weight gained by females in puberty is mostly comprised of body fat Males 1. Gain muscle mass and increase in strength during puberty Early physical maturation has mixed effects 1. Higher academic achievement and independence 2. Lower self-esteem, poorer image, and more conflicts with parents 3. Boys who physically mature early: enjoy a more positive psychological adjustment overall, better scholastic performance, better self image and great popularity; however, early maturing boys may exhibit greater behavior problems 4. Girls who physically maturation early: mixed effects, including higher academic achievement and independence, but lower self-esteem, poorer body image, and more conflicts with parents
Storm and Stres Theory
About 1. Hall (1904) proclaimed that adolescence is a time of significant emotional turmoil 2. Subsequent research has not supported his conclusion, in that it appears that only a small proportion of adolescents experience a period of "storm and stress" Storm and Stress 1. Characterized as conflicts with parents, mood disruptions, and risky behaviors 2. Currently, psychologists do not accept the Storm-and-Stress Theory as universal Adolescence 1. Period of heightened vulnerability to some forms of psychopathology 2. Teenagers experience greater pressure, face new challenges, physical maturation, development of new cognitive skills, dating, changes in family dynamics, and more complex school and social demands 3. Research has found that most adolescents are not emotionally disturbed and do not develop serious problem behaviors like drug abuse or chronic delinquency 4. Significant mental health problems are found in just about 20 percent of adolescents These problems may have started before adolescence
Intelligence
Terms 1. Crystallized Intelligence - information collected throughout the lifespan Remains intact with aging and may even improve overall 2. Fluid Intelligence - ability to think abstractly and the capacities for problem solving in novel situations Peaks in adolescence and gradually declines 3. Middle adulthood - Maximum performance of cognitive abilities 4. In summary, cognitive abilities do not globally decrease as people age Some cognitive abilities remain intact, or even improve, while others decline 5. This can be seen in the "classic aging pattern," which involves a decline in performance skills with verbal skills remaining intact 6. Intelligence quotient - (IQ) a standardized measure of intelligence IQ scores can be influential in a person's life as they can be used as a predictor for his or her ability to succeed in different situations 7. Synchrony effect - older adults tend to do better when tested in the morning
Gifted Children
About Giftedness 1. IQ above 130 2. Combination of above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment 3. Giftedness can be determined by advanced language skills by 18 months of age 4. Gifted children are highly curious and motivated to learn Linda Silverman at Gifted Development Center 1. Used the Characteristics of Giftedness Scale to identify gifted children Identifiers for Gifted Children 1. Rapid learning, extensive vocabulary, good memory, long attention span, perfectionism, preference for older companions, excellent sense of humor, early interest in reading, strong ability with puzzles and mazes, maturity, and perseverance Assessing giftedness 1. The Stanford-Binet, which has a high ceiling of about 180, is a more appropriate test for giftedness than the WISC-IV, which has a ceiling of only 150
Mental Retardation
About 1. Mental Retardation: Disorder characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning and self-help skills 2. Onset prior to age 18 Four levels 1. MILD: IQ between 50 and 70; able to function almost independently, development tends to be delayed, typically able to reach a third- to sixth-grade level of education 2. MODERATE: IQ between 35 and 55; problems developing language and motor skills, able to reach a second grade level of education 3. SEVERE: IQ between 20-40; involves more developmental impairment 4. PROFOUND: IQ scores below 20; limited to no speech and significant impairment in motor skills, usually require 24-hour supervision, although some may be able to learn basic self-care

Memory Decline with Aging

Aging 1. Aging has been shown to affect various memory processes, some more than others 2. Cognitive abilities do not globally decline with age 3. The classic aging pattern involves a decline in performance skills with verbal skills remaining intact Sensory memory 1. Very brief visual or auditory memory that holds sensory input for a few seconds Short-term memory 1. The limited-capacity storage that holds things that are "in mind" at the moment, changes little with age in terms of capacity; also referred to as recent memory Working memory 1. Working memory is the active process of holding information so as to do complex tasks, such as reasoning, comprehension, and learning and does decline with aging. Long-term memory 1. The warehouse for facts and images, past experiences, and it appears to undergo some decline with age, though decline occurs more slowly; also referred to as remote memory Episodic memories 1. Recollections of past events, or episodes Semantic memories   1. Factual knowledge that is learned 2. Appears to be largely unaffected by age; however, episodic memory does appear to decline with age Explicit memory 1. Information that is held in one's conscious mind and that is easy to retrieve 2. Unconscious information, which includes learned behaviors, such as riding a bicycle Metamemory 1. The ability to reflect on how memory works 2. Demonstrated in the use of rehearsal, repetition, and other purposeful methods of increasing one's memory (Feldman, 2006) The use of mnemonic devices(memory strategy) 1. Benefits older adult’s more than younger adults Seattle Longitudinal Study 1. Approximately 40 percent of adults with prior cognitive declines have demonstrated marked, positive change after going through a cognitive training program
Objt Permecanence
Definitions 1. The understanding that objects keep existing even when they cannot be seen 2. The ability to understand that objects continue to exist independent of the child’s involvement with them. Very young infants rely heavily on their senses Objects exist only when they can perceive them or act on them Critical accomplishment during the sensorimotor stage (according to Piaget) 1. Occurs between three to four months (some say as late as eight months) 2. Infants become able to maintain a mental image (representation) even when the object is not present. 3. Enhanced capacity has been used to explain the development of separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.

Memory of Children

Research supports 1. That individuals are able to recall memories as early as the first year of life Infantile amnesia 1. Refers to the inability to recall information before 3-4 years of age 2. Loss of memory may not be permanent The ability to remember is based on three factors 1. The nature of the event 2. How often the event is experienced 3. The ability of cues to remind the person The ability of adults to remember early memories 1. Is related to the influence of language 2. Memory retrieval is influenced by language 3. Young children have few words to help store memories 4. Adults may have difficulty retrieving early memories because the early memory was stored with few language cues

Vygotsky's Model of Cognitive Development

Origin 1. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian sociocultural theorist, proposed that children’s cognitive development largely depends on culture, relationships, and language. 2. Learning is accomplished through the interaction 3. Teaching relationships may be within the family, community, or school Terms and ideas 1. Reciprocal relationship – a relationship formed between student and teacher involves informing and changing each other The lessons learned depends largely on the culture in which the child is raised Lessons are communicated through language 2.Scaffolding – a minimalist level of teaching in which the teacher gives no more or less information than required for the student to complete a task 3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) – The ZPD is "the area between the level of performance a child can achieve when working independently and a higher level of performance that is possible when working under the guidance or direction of more skilled adults or peers" (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2007). 4. Private speech or self-talk – a youngster may verbalize instructions about how to complete a task Private speech- method children use to instruct and regulate their behavior Essential for Cognitive Development, as it helps integrate language with thought, is used to guide actions, and may aid the completion of difficult or confusing tasks 5. Pretend play – often used by children, helps them to learn how to behave in the world. Montessori method 1. Vygotsky's theory influential in the development of the Montessori method 2. The reciprocal teaching method: is often used in instructing reading comprehension Teachers first educate students about learning strategies Students are able to teach others what they have learned 3. Cooperative learning; children are grouped together and asked to interact to achieve a common goal The more skilled students are able to inform and instruct the less experienced ones
Schemata
Piaget’s term for mental structures that process information, perceptions, and experiences; the schemes of individuals change as they grow
Adaptation
The process by which organisms change so that they will be more successful in a particular environment
Assimilation
The process of incorporating new information into existing schemas
Accomodation
The process that requires schemas to change when a new object or event does not fit
Terminal Drop
Definition   1. The rapid decline in cognitive functioning and coping ability that occurs 1-5 years before death Key Figure1. Robert Kleemeier Reflects the individual’s declining health status 1. Which leads to lessened ability to cope adequately with environmental demands because of lowered ability to integrate stimuli 2. Decline in intelligence may be due to failing health 3. Others studies suggest that depression may cause individual to withdraw or become unmotivated to do well on standardized intelligence tests, despite no change in cognitive ability
Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky 1. Emphasized a universal nature of languagedevelopment Nativist theory of language development 1. Suggeststhat human beings have an inborn language generating mechanism, Language Acquisition Device (LAD) 1. Emphasizesbiologically programmed capacities in language acquisition 2. Chomsky’s theory is speakers of a language cancomprehend and produce an unlimited set of sentences 3. Children are preprogrammed to learn language and are born with a cognitive structure specificallydeveloped to learn language linguistic universals 4. Similarities in thefeatures of grammatical relations between subject and predicate, and thepossibility of posing questions, giving commands, and expressing negatives World’s languages 1. Differ in their surfacecharacteristics, but have basic similarities in their composition (deepstructure) Surface structure 1. Actual sound or wordsequence Deep structure 1.Intent of the sentence. Transformational grammar (preverbal, intuitiverules) 1. Turn deep structure into surface structure
Bilingualism
This ability has been linked with several strengths such as 1. Cognitive flexibility 2. Creativity 3. Attentiveness Bilingual speakers have greater metalinguistic understanding, which is knowledge of grammatical rules Code-switching 1. Tendency of bilingual speakers to transfer between their first and second language Children in the United States’ school system with a first language other than English, several alternatives are available. 1. Immersion- English is only language used in class 2.Bilingual education- children are taught in their first language, and English Bilingual education may be preferable and more academically successful Neural plasticity helps young children manage learning two languages more easily than older children and adults
Language Development
Children in different cultures progress through similar stages of language acquisition. Stage Progression 1. Crying- Infants produce several distinct patterns of crying including a hunger cry, an anger cry, and a pain cry. 2. Cooing- Begins between six to eight weeks, which are vowel-like sounds like "oooh" and "aaaah." 3. Babbling –Begins between three and four months of age. Involves repeating consonant-vowel combination like "dada" or "baba" again and again4. Word Comprehension - At about nine months of age, babies begin to understand words such as "no" or the baby's name. 4. Babbling: 3-4 months consonant sounds produced. 4-6 months babbling stage involves repeated consonant-vowel combinations (e.g., dada, baba) is thought to contain all the phonemes (smallest unit of sound in a language such as the letter "b") that are present across languages. 
5. Echolalia - Begins at about nine to 10 months of age and involves deliberate imitation of sounds without comprehension. At about nine to 10 months babies are able to string together sounds in a pattern 6. Holophrastic speech - The infant speaks its first meaningful word at about 1 year of age. At around 18 months, infant experiences a vocabulary spurt, occurring after mastery of about 30 to 50 words. Mistakes in speech:  Overextension and Underextension Underextension- infant uses a word such as "kitty" only to describe their own household cat Overextension- infant uses one word to describe a wide range of objects or events 7. Telegraphic speech - Comes when the toddler puts two words together to express one idea.  Occurs between 18-24 months; by 24 months average vocabulary is 200 words.

Bem's Gender Schema Theory

Gender Schema Theory – Sandra Bem 1. People vary in the degree that they process information relative to gender, according to gender-stereotypes Gender Schema: a "cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender;" for example, a young child may learn to associate that playing with dolls is feminine and playing with cars is masculine 1. Organizing play according to gender would involve using one's Gender Schema 2. Various cultures have different input as to what is masculine and what is feminine 3. People who readily categorize information by gender classification, in a manner that is popular with their culture, are said to be sex-typed. (For example, a woman would be considered sex-typed if she attributed many qualities to herself that are considered feminine in her culture.) On the other hand, a woman who attributed many masculine and feminine qualities to herself, according to her culture, would be labeled androgynous in such a culture 4. According to Bem, children can be encouraged to be androgynous in their Gender Schema if parents want to avoid teaching stereo-typing 5. Individuals who attribute few masculine and feminine characteristics to themselves are said to be "aschematic"
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Founder: Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development Phases: 1. Trust versus mistrust First stage of identity crisis Draws from relationship with primary caregivers during infancy Crisis between seeing existence as reliable or untrustworthy Successful resolution leads to optimism Failure at resolution leads to pervasive suspicion 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt Second stage of identity crisis Draws from relationship with caregivers during toddler years Crisis between independence and dependency for decision making Successful resolution leads to ability to be self-directed Failure at resolution leads to pervasive dependency upon others 3. Initiative versus guilt Third stage of identity crisis Draws from relationship with family Crisis between having fortitude to do what one wants or feeling guilty for doing so at times Successful resolution leads to regard for the rights and feelings of others Failure at resolution leads to self-centered decision making and rejections by others 4. Industry versus inferiority Fourth stage of identity crisis Draws from relationships with teachers and peers in school and other community figures Crisis between feeling competent and worrying over inadequacy Successful resolution leads to a sense of self as capable Failure at resolution leads to paralyzing low esteem 5. Identity versus role confusion Fifth stage of identity crisis Draws from relationships with peers Crisis between who one is and what is expected from roles in society Successful resolution leads to integrated goals and dreams as well as solid identity Failure at resolution leads to unstable sense of self and erratic choices in life 6. Intimacy versus isolation Sixth stage of identity crisis Draws from relationships with spouses, friends and lovers Crisis between closeness to others and vulnerability as a result Successful resolution leads to deeply fulfilling relationships with others Failure at resolution leads to loneliness 7. Generativity versus stagnation Seventh stage of identity crisis Draws from relationships with co-workers, neighbors and family Crisis between a sense of being productive and feeling as if one has nothing to contribute Successful resolution leads to generosity Failure at resolution leads to emptiness 8. Ego integrity versus despair Eighth stage of identity crisis Draws from memories, regrets, legacy, and relationships with important others across life Crisis between a sense of life well lived and a deep sense of loss Successful resolution leads to wisdom and acceptance of death Failure at resolution leads to helplessness and pain in facing dying
Freud's Psychosexual Development
Sigmund Freud Series of five developmental stages during childhood
  1. Oral Phase (birth – 1 year)
  2. Anal Phase (1-3 years)
  3. Phallic Phase (3-6 years)
  4. Latency Phase (6 – 12 years)
  5. Genital Phase (12 and up)
Phase descriptions
  1. Oral Phase Infant begins to identify a sense of self as separate from the outer world. The mouth is used to explore this world and is a source of desire and gratification or frustration. Orally fixated adults- immature or passive (Smoking habits, overeating and alcoholism might be attributed to fixations at this phase)
  2. Anal Phase Issues of control become of central importance.Toilet training tends to be cited as the most significant factor during this stage.Anal retentive vs anal expulsive (obsessive-compulsiveness vs messiness)
  3. Phallic Phase Children often become more aware of gender differences. Oedipal Complex originates at this stage, whereby the boy's Id drives him to wish to replace his stronger father as the object of his mother's love. The "Electra Complex" is the female version of the Oedipal Complex, and is not a Freudian idea
  4. Latency Phase Drives are repressed or latent.  
  5. Genital Phase Sexual gratification is sought on an adult level, but can be reached by symbolic ways. Criticism
  1. Freud, himself and his theories, were sexually fixated at the loss of other important factors in personality development.
  2. Freud's theory professes universality and does not account for differences in culture.
  3. Despite the many criticisms of this model that have arisen over time, one of the most meaningful contributions of this model to modern psychology is the use of stages as a concept. Developmental stages are now widely used to explain phenomena in our field.
Levinson
Levinson 1. Seasons of a Man’s Life 2. Development proceeds through alternating periods of transition and stability 3. Theory based on interviews with 40 men who held professional jobs 4. Theory criticized both for excluding persons of lower socioeconomic status and for excluding women and their development Pre-Adulthood (birth – 22 years) 1. Identity formation and separation from family of origin Early Adulthood (17-45 years) 1. Person starts tochange the sense of self that he developed during childhood, and begins to make some tentative choices about life as an adult 2. Entering the Adult World- consolidated the choices made earlier 3. Age 30 Transition- establishing patterns of adult life, which include are consideration of choices made before settling down 4. Settling Down-Person has settled into his commitments as an adult Middle Adulthood (40-65) 1. Involves a change inperspective from "time since birth" to "time left to live." 2. Personbegins to relinquish the perspective of early adulthood, and may make more adjustments as a result of this change in perspective 3. Midlife transition –looking at the life lived, and evaluating whether one has worked well for his dream. May experience amidlife crisis 4. Age 50 Transition-involves making changes associated with entering this decade of life Late Adulthood (60 – 85 years) 1. Involves the developmental tasks associated with this stage of life, such as retirement, death, etc.
Temperament
refers to the inborn characteristic way that infants interact with the world around them. Through a longitudinal study, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess (1977) discovered that infants’ Temperaments gravitate toward one of three clusters: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up. The easy child is one who is typically in a happy mood, and is generally flexible. This baby adjusts quickly to a schedule. The difficult infant is most often dissatisfied, which he or she demonstrates by crying frequently. This child has a difficult time adjusting to a schedule and tends to dislike change. The slow-to-warm-up child has the tendency of having little activity. The infant’s emotions tend to be muted and often negative.

the child’s relationship with the parents is crucial. The researchers described this as "goodness-of-fit" between the child’s Temperament and the environment. To have a desirable "goodness-of-fit", the parent needs to behave with consistency and patience. When parents react toward an infant’s style with anger, the child is more likely to develop behavioral problems.

Homeostasis

System's tendency 1. To return to a state of balance or status quo in order to achieve stability and limited range of behavioral variability Families 1. Develop recurring patterns of interaction that maintain stability 2. Family may develop symptoms to bring group back to homeostatic state Therapist 1. Helps the family experience new, healthier balance
Identity Process Theory
Individual mayexperience more identity formation during early adulthood Involves three processes 1. Assimilation 2. Accommodation 3. Balance Identity assimilation 1. Seeks consistency andlooks for information to support beliefs Identity accommodation 1. Seeks to change beliefsto accommodate new information Identity balance 1. Seeks to use bothassimilation and accommodation in balance Person may change when presented with new information
Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale
About Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (1967) 1. Thomas H. Holmes and Richard H. Rahe 2. Used as a measure of life stress and tool for examining the stress-illness relationship 3. Good and bad events in an individual's life can increase stress levels 4. Stress makes one more vulnerable to illness 5. Each stressor has a designated score 6. Forty-three items ranging in point value from least (11, minor law violations) to most stressful (100, death of a spouse) Scores 1. Score of less than 150 is considered minor stress; 150-199 is mild stress; 200-299 is moderate stress; 300 is major stress 2. Holmes and Rahe estimated that 35 percent of those who scored below 150 will experience an illness or accident within two years 3. Scores between 150 to 300 have a 51 percent chance to experience an illness or accident within two years 4. Scores more than 300 have an 80 percent chance of significant illness or accident
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