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Erikson's Stages of Development
Infancy (birth-18months)
Crisis- trust vs mistrust
Task- Attachment to mother

Resolution of crisis- Trust on other people; faith and hope about the enviornment and the future.

Unsuccessful Resolution- General difficulties relating to others effectively, suspicion, trust/fear conflict; fear of the future
Early Childhood (18months-3years)
Crisis- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Task- gaining some basic control over self and the enviornment

Resolution of crisis- Sense of self-control and adequancy; will power

Unsuccessful resolution- Indepence/fear conflict; severe feelings of self doubt
Late Childhood (3-6 years)
Crisis- intiative vs gift
Task- Becoming purposeful and directive

Resolution of crisis- Ability to initiate one's own activities; sense of purpose

Unsuccessful Resolution- Aggresion/fear conflict; sense of inadequancy or guilt
School Age (6-12years)
Crisis- industry vs. inferiority
Task- Developing social, physical, and learning skills

Resolution- Competence; ability to learn and work

Unsuccessful Resolution- Sense of inferiority; difficulty learning and working
Adolesence (12-20years)
Crisis- Identify vs role confusion
Task- Developing a sense of identity

Resolution- Sense of personal identity

Unsuccessful- Confusion about identity, identity is submerged in relationships or group memberships
Early Adulthood (20-35 years)
Crisis- Intimacy vs isolation
Task- Establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship

Resolution- Ability to love deeply and commit oneself
Unsuccessful- emotional isolation; egocentricity
Middle Adulthood (35-65 years)
Crisis- Generativity vs Stagnation
Task- Fulfilling life goals that involve family, career, and society

Resolution- ability to give and care others
Unsuccessful- Self-absorption; inability to grow as a person
Later (65 years to death)
Crisis- Integritity vs despari
Task- looking back over one;s life and accepting its meaning

Resolution- sense of integrity and fulfillment
Unsuccessful- dissatisfaction with life
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Stage 0 (birth-2years)

Egocentric Judgement Infant has no awareness of right or wrong
Stage 1 (2-3years)
Punishment-obedience Orientation
Do not reason as mature society members.
Selfish outlook
Displays acceptable behavior to avoid punishment. Withdrawing love and affection as punishment leads to feelings of guilt.

Appropriate discipline:
  • Simple explanations of why behavior is unacceptable
  • praising appropriate behavior
  • use distractions for toddler when heading into danger
Stage 2 (4-7 years) level 1
Instrumental Relativist Orientation
  • The child conforms to rules to obtain rewards or have favors returned.
  • Morals are those of others, observed to obtain rewards or avoid punishment.
  • Preschooler is in preconventional stage of moral development
  • Conscience emerges
Stage 2 (4-7 years) level 2

Conventional Morality
  • Child conforms to please others
  • Increased awareness of others' feelings
  • Concern for social order emerges
  • Considers good behavior thaat which authority will approve of
  • If behavior is unacceptaable child feels guilt
Stage 3 (7-10 years)
Good boy-Nice Girl Orientation
  • Confomrity is done for approval from others
  • Being good is important and is interpreted as having good motives and showing concern for others
  • Also means maintaining mutual relationships w/ trust, loyalty, respect, and gratitude.
Stage 4 (10-12 years)
Law and order orientation
  • More concern for society as a whole.
  • Emphasis on obeying laws to maintain social order
  • Moral reasoning develops as child focuses on living to society
  • Role conformity stage (trying to please others)
  • Child observes and to some extent internalizes standards of others
  • Wants to be considered "good"
Stage 5 (12years and older)
Social Contract Legalistic Orientation
  • Aware that people hold a variety of values and opinions, are relative to group
  • Gives as well as takes and does not expect to get something without paying for it
Stage 6
Universal Ethical Principles
  • Conformity is based on universal principles of justice and to avoid self condemnation
  • Self chosen ethical principles
  • defined set of moral values
  • Control of conduct is now internal, both in standards observed and in reasoning about right and wrong
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