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Define Chemical Elements:
the building blocks to all forms of matter
Name the main chemical elements in the body
O, C, H, N (make up 96% of body weight)
Isotopes are
different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Some isotopes are called
Radioisotopes, they are unstable and may emit radiation that can be monitored with radiation detectors.
What is the outermost shell of an electron?
Valence Shell
For an atom to achieve stability...
an atom will tend to either empty their valence shell or fill it to the max extent (8) which is achieved by giving up or sharing with other atoms
Inert elements are:
elements that have a full valence shell
An ionic bond is
when outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another
An ion is
an atom that has a positive or negative charge because it has unequal numbers of protons and electrons
A cation is
a positively charged ion (when the protons exceed the number of electrons)
An anion is
a negatively charged ion (when the electrons exceed the protons)
Covalent bonds are
when there is sharing of pairs of outer-energy-level electrons
Hydrogen bonds are
when two other atoms (usually O or N) associate with a hydrogen atom
What factors determine if a chemical (metabolic) reaction will occur
1. The concentration of particles 2. The speed at which particles are traveling (influenced by temperature and size) 3. Activation energy 4. Proper orientation of the colliding partivles.
Synthesis reactions are
When two or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules. ex: N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3
Anabolism is
all the synthesis reactions that occur in your body collectively
Catabolic Reactions are
when chemical bonds are broken. AB --> A + B
Exchange Reactions
involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms ex: HCl + NaHCO3 --> H2CO3 + NaH ex: Glucose 1p --> Glucose 6p <--
Oxidation - Reduction reactions
electrons are taken from the atom being oxidized by the atom being reduced.
Which of the following lists contain elements that have ionic forms critical to muscle contraction and action potential generation?(a) C, H, O, N (b) Ca, P, Sc) Cl, Mg, S (d) Ca, Na, K (e) Fe, Mg, P
d) Ca, Na, K
Isotopes are able to
release radiation if their nuclei are unstable.
Which of the following compounds is a polar covalent? (a) O2 (b) H20 (c) NaCl (d) CH4 (e) Kl
b) H2O not an ion but a positive charge
Buffers
can release H+ if the pH is too high
Hydrogen bonds can
form between H and N or O atoms
metabolism
The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
x of y cards