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Describe the composition of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are composed of C, H and O
They are also called saccharides, which means sugars
Describe the role of carbohydrates in the body
They role of carbohydrates in the body:
  • Metabolic fuels - e.g. glucose in the blood sugar
  • Storage form of energy - as glycogen
  • Essential componants of nucleic acids, ribose present in RNA and 2-deoxyribose in DNA
  • Mediation of interaction between cells - present in the surface of the cell membrane
Types of carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides
The simplest carbohydrate
Important monosaccharides: glucose (blood suagr), fructose (fruit juice, honey), and galactose (not free in nature)
Types of carbohydrates:
Disaccharides
Consist of two monosaccharides, connected by a covalent bond, giving off H2O
Important disaccharides:
  • Maltose (glucose +glucose)
  • Lactose (galactose + glucose)
  • Sucrose (fructose + glucose)
Types of carbohydrates:
Polysaccharides
Contain many monosaccharides. They are polymers of glucose
E.g. Cellulose (plants and wool), starch (potatoes), and glycogen (highly branched starch)
Explain the importance of glycogen as a storage carbohydrate and relate its structures to tis function
Glycogen is the polymer of glycose that stores glucose in out bodies.
There is 350g of glycogen in the body (liver and muscle)
Glycogen is highly branched when compared to other polysaccharides
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