Cloned from: Pharm chpt 2



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pharmacodynamics
the study of the interaction between drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in the pharmacologic response
agonists
drugs that interact with a recetor to stimulate a response
antagonists
drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response
partial agonists
drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response but inhibit other responses
ADME - all drugs go through these stages
absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
pharmacokinetics
the study of the mathematical relationships among the ADME of individual medicines over time
the 3 categories of drug administration
enteral, parenteral and percutaneous routes
the enteral route
drug is administered directly in the GI tract by oral, rectal or nasogastic routes
the parenteral route
bypass the GI tract by using subQ, IM, or IV injections
percutaneous route
administration include inhalation, sublingual, or topical
metabolism
LIVER or lungs, kineys, plasma, GI tract. process in which body inactivates drug and gets ready to get rid of it
excretion
primarily kidneys. also live and GI tract. Affected by: health, renal func. and hydration
half-life
helps determine how long drug is effective and calculate frequency of meds. about 5 half lives to remove drug from body
drug actions: desired action or therapeutic response
desired effect and monitor for drug reaction
Drug action: side effects
predictalbe EX: morphine - sedation
drug action: toxicity
delecterious effects on body or tissue. results from overdose, out of therapeutic range, build up of a drug in body
parameters/therapeutic index
ratio between drugs therapeutic benefits and toxic effects
Idiosyncratic reaction
unusual or abnormal reaction. happens when administered for 1st time, unexpected and rare.
types of responses
neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic (birth defects), carcinogenic (cancer causing), etc.
allergic reaction: hives and ithcing
urticaria
carcinogenicity
the ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous. DANGER!
anaphylactic reaction
severe life threatening medical emergency
incompatability
(usually parenteral drugs) causes deterioration of 1 or more of the drugs
variable factors influecing drug action
overall health, life style, activity, gender, enbironment, culture
flattened affect
zero emotion, stoned ppl
common drug interactions:
CNS depressants, analgesics, tranquilizers, alcohol, anticoagulants
additive effects
2+2=4 similar drugs and response
synergistic effect
2+2=6 greater effect than each alone EX: aspirin and codine
antagonistic effect
2+2=1 less effective than each alone
Lozenge
flat disks countaining a medicainal agen in a suitably flavored base. in mouth until dissolved
SR
sustained release
motility
speed at which peristolosis occurs
duration
time that drug is int he therapeutic index
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