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forms required
  • Medical History Form
  • Doctors permission form (mod-high risk)
  • Par-Q
  • Informed Consent Waiver
inform client before testing
  • appropriate clothing
  • avoid heavy meals and strenuous exercise just before testing
  • get a good night's sleep
reasons for fitness testing
  • establish current health status
  • gauge progress
  • educate and involve client
  • demonstrate knowledge & professionalism
limitations of fitness testing
  • estimates only
  • some client's do not like
components of fitness assessment
  • resting HR and blood pressure
  • body composition
  • assess cardiorespiratory fitness
  • assess muscle strength and endurance
  • assess flexibility
  • optional fitness assessments
resting heart rate
  • radial artery, 30 seconds
  • look for steady beat, less than 100
  • if over 100 then postpone further testing
body composition
current guidelines:
15% men, 25% women
ways to test: DEXA, hydro weighing, caliper, formula, ...
protocols for skinfold "pinch" test
take all measurements on RH side of body
  • measure 1/2" from thumb and finger, perpendicular to skin fold
  • maintain pinch during measurements
  • wait 1-2 seconds after pinching to read
  • rotate through sites to allow skin time to regain normal texture and thickness
  • ID sites using landmarks
  • measure each site twice
skinfold sites for females
  • triceps
  • suprailiac
  • thigh
skinfold sites for males
  • chest
  • abdomen
  • thigh
determine body fat % using skinfold measurements
add average reading for each of 3 sites together; use the chart - find the sum of the readings row and the age column intersection
what %  body fat = overweight
more than 25%
what % body fat = obese
30%
waist to hip ratio method
measure waist and hips; divide waist by hips and you have the ratio; should be less than .95 for men under 60; .85 for women under 60
cardio respiratory testing types
  • maximal
  • submaximal
maximal CR testing
diagnostic or functional
exercise to exhaustion
submaxial CR testing methods
single stage (3 min step)
multi stage (3 stage treadmill or cycle test)
3 minute step test protocols
  • purpose
  • no warm up, light stretch, practise steps, no arm movement, no talking, 12" platform at 96 bpm, entire foot on step, discontinue if pain, after 3 mins sit and take pulse
  • palpate radial artery and take pulse for one minute (this is recovery rate)
muscle strength assessment
  • static/isometric
  • dynamic/ isotonic - 1 RM (bench or leg press)
  • not appropriate for all clients
muscle endurance assessment
  • sit up test
  • push up test *
  • YMCA dynamic bench press
  • partial curl up *
push up test protocals
  • state purpose
  • men - hands and toes
  • women - hands and knees
  • maintain proper form and alighment - neck neutral, heads not drop, no sagging waist, chest within 3" of floor
  • breathe
  • count # performed correctly
  • stop when client stops or breaks form
partial curl up test protocal
  • state purpose
  • supine with knees 90 degrees
  • finger tips at tape with another 10" away
  • 35 curl up/minute
  • 30 degres of trunk flexion
  • breathe
  • 1 minute
  • determine # of reps (max 25)
sit and reach flexibility assessment tests
  • state purpose (evaluate ham, erector spinae, calf, upper back)
  • yardstick or measuring tape
  • shoes off
  • knees at 15" mark
  • 0" toward body
  • stretch fwd and reach tape
  • 3 attempts
  • use best reading and refer to chart
other flexibility assessments
trunk extension (prone with hands under shoulder)
hamstring test (supine and lift one leg)
hip flexor test (supine, hands behind knee and pull into chest with other leg flat)
quads flex text (prone, raise heel to butt)
calf flexibility (against wall; dorsiflex and hold 1" off floor)
shoulder flexibility (stand, raise arm overhead, reach downward, other arm reaches up)
shoulder flexion (supine with bent knees and reach overhead)
postural screening purpose
  • state purpose (ID muscle imbalances and postural abnormalities that might cause back pain)
excessive lorodosis define and explain screening test
lorodosis - sway back
  • against wall with heels 1" away; should & hips against
  • if greater than one palm depth space may have tendancy to lorodosis
  • if so, forcus on strengthen abs, stretch erector spinae and illiopsoas muscles

excessive kyphosis define and explain screening test
kyphosis - hunchback, fwd head alignment
  • march in place
  • stop
  • examine posture from side
  • are head and shoulders lined up? is head fwd or shoulders
  • if kyphosis - strengthen scapular adductors, mid trap and rhomboids (seated row); stretch pec major and ant delt

hip and shoulder height discrepancy screening
  • hip height test - stand normally, measure iliac crest to floor both sides, more than 1/4" diff may suggest problem and affect balance
  • shoulder height test - paper taped to wall and stand against and draw straight edge; measure to floor and compare; diff more than 1/4" may suggest misalignment
  • in either case, refer to health care provider for contraindicated exercises or PT needs
optional fitness assessments
  • lung function test
  • cholesteral testing
  • ADLs testing (balance, get out of chair)
  • functional fitness tests (stair climbing CR assessment, ...)
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