by jr2387


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Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing
role confusion.
Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is promoted by
aerobic exercise.
Which of the following terms refers to a person’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills?
crystallized intelligence
Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, people in Western cultures today are marrying at a(n)
older age and they are more likely to divorce.
Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of
stability or change.
For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n)
teratogen.
By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’
body odors.
After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of
accommodation.
During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
sense of object permanence.
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ states of mind is most characteristic of
autism
Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of
insecure attachment.
People’s styles of romantic love in adulthood are most likely to reflect their childhood
attachment experiences.
Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are
more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence
Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.
secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics
Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.
preconventional
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
Erikson’s psychosocial development theory
Menopause involves a decline in
fertility.
As adults age, they show the greatest declines in
fluid intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to recall recently presented information
According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of
integrity.
Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of
continuity or stages.
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates
associative learning
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of
.observable behavior.
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person had become a(n)
conditioned stimulus
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a
UR.
Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) ________.
CS; US
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates
spontaneous recovery.
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates
generalization.
The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism’s ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a ________ perspective.
cognitive
The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by
Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement.
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as
shaping.
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.
conditioned
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio
Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company’s fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.
variable-interval
Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.
decreases; increases
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates
observational learning.
If you have a “frightening experience” immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates
classical conditioning.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)
unconditioned stimulus.
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a
CR.
Months after she was raped, Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney’s anxiety.
.conditioned stimulus
After being bitten by his neighbor’s dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of
discrimination.
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by
biological predispositions.
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates
operant conditioning.
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of
negative reinforcement.
A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.
conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates
.partial reinforcement
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.
variable-ratio
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin’s behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
fixed-interval
To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a
punishment
An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of
mirror neurons.
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?
Bandura
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