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A persuasive appeal based on the projected character of the speaker or narrator.
Ex: Mark Antony in Julius Ceasar
"Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears" (III 2.82).
" I speak not to disapprove what Brutus spoke but I am here to speak what I know" (III 2.99-110).
the means of persuasion that appeals to the audiences emotions
Ex: A Save the Children ad in a magazine
an appeal based on logic or reason
Ex: I've just tasted this lemon. It is sour. Therefore all lemons must be sour.
when one term is substituted for another term with which it is closely related
Ex 1: crown or sceptre stands duty for monarch
Ex 2: "He writes a fine hand" --Meaning good handwriting
Ex 3: "The pen is mightier than the sword" --Meaning  literary power is superior to military force
a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things
Ex 1: Her home was a prison.
Ex 2: Life is like a box of chocolates.
Ex 3: How could she marry a snake like that?
a comparison between two different things employing the words like or as
Ex 1: My love is like a red rose
Ex 2: "It's been a hard day's night, and I've been working like a dog" (The Beetles)
a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect
Ex 1: They ran like greased lightning.
Ex 2: I've told you a million times not to lie.
a reference to a famous person, place, thing, or part of another work of literature.
Ex 1: "Yet what founded our particular friendship was a cirucmstance, by itself as romantic as any fable of King Arthur".
Ex 2: “Great God! I’d rather be
A pagan suckled in a creed outworn;
So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;
Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea;
Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.”
a repitition device wherein the same expression(word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.
Ex 1: When James saw him throw the baby, saw Van throw the little baby, saw Van throw his little sister Nin, then they moved.
Ex 2: Tale of Two cities, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light...".
establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joing the together or juxtaposing(to place close together or side by side; esp. for comparsion or contrast)them; often in parallel structure
Ex 1: To err is human; to forgive is devine.
Ex 2: That short and easy trip made lasting tand prfound change in Harolds outlook.
Ex 3: That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.
repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next
Ex 1: 
in The Eve of St. Agnes by John Keats
XLI “They glide, like phantoms, into the wide hall;
Like phantoms, to the iron porch, they glide…”

Ex 2: Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,/ Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain... --Phillip Sidney
the repition of words in the beginning and at the end of a clause or sentence
Ex 1: "Control, you must learn control".
Ex 2: "A lie begets a lie".
Ex 3: "The king is dead, long live the king".
repeating the same words or phrase in reverse order
Ex 1: All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all play and no work.
Ex 2:Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.
Ex 3: The abscence of evidence is not the evidence of abscence.
creating a parallel by inverting the grammatical structure of the second clause of a sentence
-AB-BA (Dunce wit-wit dunce)
-ABC-CBA "Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed" (Shed, blood, man-man, blood shed)

Ex 1: "Never let a fool kiss you or kiss fool you."
Ex 2: "It's boring when he's funny, it's fine when he's bored."
Ex 3: "...It's not the men in your life that count, it's the life of your men."
omission of a word or words; mark resembling three periods(...) or two dashes(--) that is used to indicate an omission of words
Ex 1: "And he to England sheall along with you" (Hamlet, Act III, Scene III)
Ex 2: Red light means stop; a green light, go.
when conjunctions (but, for, so, or, and) are done away with after every succesive clause or phrase for effect.
Ex 1: We met, we got engaged, we married.
Ex 2: She is addicted to chocolates, cakes, cookies.
Ex 3: Smile, talk, bye-bye.
Ex 4: "I have found the warm caves in the woods, filled them with skillets, carvings, shelves, closets, silks, innumerable goods..." (Her Kind by Anne Sexton).
Periodic Sentence
the main clause or it's predicate is witheld until the end
Ex: Despite heavy einds and nearly impenetrable ground fog, the plane landed safely
Cumulative or Loose Sentence
a type of sentence in which the main idea(independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses
Ex 1: He went into town to buy. groceries, visit his friens and go to the bookstore.
Ex 2: She drove her car to go to the movies, and got gas.
Interrupted Sentence
placing a modifier between the subject and the verb or between the verb and the direct object.
Ex 1: The cars dull color-though once smoth and sleek-scratched off when you rubbed it.
Ex 2: Her hands, however, were not pretty-not pale enough, perhaps, rough at the knuckle, and they ere too long, with a harshness of line.
Balanced Sentence
two or more clauses that are parallel in structure.
Ex 1: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times...
Ex 2:Whit chickens lay white eggs, and brown chickens lay brown eggs; So if white cows give white milk, do brown cows give chocolate milk?
Hasty Generalization
a fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence; The evidence is too small to support the conclusion.
Ex: Fred the Australian, stole my wallet. Thus, all Austrailians are thieves.
Faulty Casuality
the assumption that because one event follows another, the second necessarily cause the first.
Ex: Bill bleached his hair blone last week, and thus this week three other guys at the same school did the same, therefore the latter all changed their hair because bill did.
Begging the Question
asks the reader to accept the conclusion without providing real evidence; The argument either relies on a premise that says the same things as the conclusion, or simply rests on assuming as true the very claim that is distuped, in a circular argument.
Ex 1: I can't be guilty of embezzlement; I'm an honest person.
Ex 2: You can't give me a C; I'm an A student.
an argument that gives a lie an honest apperance by insisting on what is only partically true.
Ex 1: Giving money to the charity is the right thing to do. So charities have a right to our money.
Ex 2: I gave you everything I had to give you (Right then and there when yu asked me, but not of course everything I could have given you if I took money from an account where I maintain elsewhere).
Non Sequitor
an argument which leaves out a neccessary portion a logical wequence, seeming to sugst a logical connection when in fact one does not exist.
Ex: She is a feminist; She must hate men.
Ad Hominem
attacking the character of a person rather than engaging with the claim, reasons, and evidence he/she is setting forth
Ex 1: I'm listening to what you have to say I have this to say in reply: only an idiot would argue for pursuing a peaceful solution to this conflict.
Ex 2: Here's what I think about what you have written: anyone who opposes the death penalty for murder is a criminal at heart.
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