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Paramecium
A single-celled, ciliated protozoan.
Tissue
  • A group of cells that are similar in structure and perform the same function.  The four basic tissues in the animal body are:
  • Epithelial Tissue
  • Connective Tissue
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Muscle Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Covers and lines
Connective Tissue
Provides support
Muscle Tissue
Enables movement
Nervous Tissue
Controls work
Gross Anatomy
The study of body structures that are visible without additional aid to the naked eye.
Histology or Microanatomy
The microscopic study of the structure of tissues and organs.
Glandular Epithelia
Epithelial tissue composed of one cell (goblet cell) or groups of cells that produce and secrete substances into the lumen.
Goblet Cells
A type of cell, located in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, that secretes mucus.
Excretion
The elimination of waste materials from the cell or body.
Summary of the Function of Epithelial Tissues
  • Protects, covers, and lines
  • Filters biochemical substances
  • Absorbs nutrients
  • Provides sensory input
  • Manufactures secretions
  • Manufactures excretions
Epithelial Cells are Polar
They have a sense of direction relative to surrounding structures.
Epithelial Cells have two types of surface
Apical surface and Basal surface.
Apical Surface
The side of an epithelial surface that faces in toward the body cavity.
Basal Surface
The side of an epithelial surface that faces a lower level of connective tissue. 
Lumen
The opening in the middle of the intestinal tract or any hollow organ.
Junctional Complexes
The point at which epithelial cells join to one another in very close proximity.  (2nd definition) Plasma membranes of epithelial cells are joined to form specialized attachments. 
Avascular
Without a blood supply.
Innervated
Having a nerve supply.
Tight Junction
Formed by the fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membranes of adjoining cells.
Desmosome
A type of intercellular attachment found in epithelial tissue.  The bond is formed from the interlocking of filaments that connect the plasma membranes of adjacent cells.
Plaque
A flat, thickened site present in the desmosomes of the epithelial tissue.
Intermediate Filaments or Tonofilaments
Thin filaments that provide the structural support for certain membrane junctions.  Tonofilaments are especially important in tissue that needs to flex.
Hemidesmosomes
The half units of desmosomes.
Gap Junctions
Proteinaceous pores that exist in the intestinal epithelial cells of most animals.  These pores allow for he passage of nutrients, as well as providing a channel for intercellular communication.
Connexon
Proteinaceous channel that aids in the intercellular transport of nutrients.
Basement Membrane
A non-cellular, collagen-based structure that supports epithelial tissue.
Microvilli
Fingerlike prostrusions of the luminal surface of some epithelial cell membranes that increase the cell's exposed surface area.
Cilia
Hairlike processes of the luminal surface of cells that assist in the movement of mucus, fluid, and solid material across the cell surface.
Brush Border
Microvilli on the free surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells and kidney tubule cells that resemble the bristles of a brush.
Oviduct
Also called the fallopian tubes or uterine tubules; the oviduct, by way of ciliary movement, transports ova from the ovary via the infundibulum to the uterus; site of fertilization in many species; tubular extensions of the uterine horns.
Keratin
A tough, waterproof protein that makes up scales, the outer sheaths of beaks and claws, and feathers; a main component of the epidermis, nails, hair, horns, and hooves.
Simple Epithelia
Epithelium composed of a single layer of cells.
Stratified Epithelium
Epithelium composed of layers of cells.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers of flat squamous cells; found in the vagina, mouth, and anus; possesses the ability to regenerate rapidly.
Cuboidal Cells
Cube-shaped cells having centrally located nuclei. 
Squamous Cells
Flat, hexagonal cells that make up sqamous epithelia.
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium
The epithelial classification of the epidermis.  It is highly regenerative and waterproof, therapy helping the body to retain moisture and thermoregulate.
Mesothelium
A layer of cells that lines the body cavities of the fetus and that covers the serous membranes in adult animals.
Endothelium
Derived from mesothelium, the endothelium is composed of simple squamous epithelium.  It lines the heart, blood vessels, and serous cavities of the body.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Single-layered, cube-shaped epithelium found on the ovaries and in many of the ducts of the body because of its ability to aid in secretion.
Cuboidal Epithelium
Cube-shaped cells having centrally located nuclei.
Thyroxine or Tetraiodothyronine (T-4)
Thyroxine; thyroid horomone that is largely converted to T3 before exerting an effect on target cells.
Simple Columnar Epethelium
Single-layered, columnar epithelium found in the stomach and intestines because of its ability to absorb and secrete.
Excretory Ducts
Ducts that transport waste products or secretions out of an organ or gland.
Absorptive Cell
A cell commonly found in the small intestine that can absorb nutrients from the luminal surface via phagocytosis and pinocytosis.  Absorptive cells have large surface areas as a result of the presence of microvilli.  The expanded surface area increases the absorptive capability of the cell.
Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Single-layered columnar-shaped epithelium containing cilia; found in the oviduct.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers of flat squamous cells; found in the vagina, mouth, and anus; possesses the ability to regenerate rapidly.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Multi-layered, cube-shaped epithelium found in excretory tracts of the body.
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