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What causes glomerulonephritis
Streptococcal Infection     Winter (cold)= strep       Summer (hot)= Impetigo
S&S of Glomerulonephritis
some asymptomatic.  Others Oliguria, HTN, edema, proteinuria, hematuria
Nursing Interventions for glomerulonephritis
monitor I&O , watch for severe hypertension, monitor urine for protenuria, hematuria, daily wt (edema)
What would indicate improvement of glomerulonephritis?
increased urine output and wt loss due to reduced edema
What are the clinical manifestations of nephrosis?
Proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, periorbital edema  urine volume Decrease & frothy urine
What nursing care is especially important for nephrosis?
Reduce the exertion of urinary protein. Bedrest & strict I&O: preserve renal function & prevent complications. Skin care due to bedrest.
What types of medication are used to treat nephrosis?
Prednisone (to reduce edema/inflammation)
What is the side effect of Prednisone?
What are the different types of Cerebral Palsy?
Spastic, Dyskinetic, Ataxic and Mixed
What are the clinical manifestations of Spastic Cerebral Palsy?
hypertonicity (no muscle tone), poor control of posture, impaired fine & gross motor skills
What is the first sign of CP in mild
preferred unilateral hand use and delayed gross motor skills (if by age 2 they have not met milestones- something is wrong!)
What are the main goals of therapy for CP?
promote physical mobility, assist in normalization
Where does eczema usually occur in infants?
cheeks, scalp and extensor surfaces of extremeties
where does eczema usually occur in children?
flexor surfaces of extremeties and back behind scapula
What is the primary nursing consideration for eczema?
hydration and skin lubrication
medical term for lice
pediculosis capitis
treatment of lice
Pediculicide shampoo such as pyrethrum w/enzymatic lice egg remover such as 1% perethrin (nix)
What is scabies?
infestation of the mite sarcoptes scabie.
What is the tx of scabies?
scabacide such as 5% permethrin lotion all over body for 8-12 hrs.
What is impetgo?
highly contagious infection caused by staphylococcus. Most common bacterial infection of children
What are the medical term for fungal infections of scalp, trunk, jock, feet?
scalp= tinea capitus
trunk= tinea corporis
jock= tinea cruris
feet= tinea pedis
tx fungal infection?
capitus: griseovulvin PO
corporis:topical cream
cruris: topical antifungal
pedis: broad spectrum topical antifungal
What site of fracture can result in a growth problem?
epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
What is the purpose of traction?
stabilization/immobilization which causes fatigue in muscle and reduces muscle spasm- essential for bone realignment & healing
What are the early S&S of ICP?
headache, visual disturbances, pupils not as reactive or equal, sunsetting of eyes, slight changes in LOC
What are the S&S when an INFANT has ICP?
irritability, bulging fontanel, wide sutrures, increased head circum. dilated scalp veins, high pitched catlike cry.
What are the signs that ICP is getting worse?
cushings triad(increased systolic, widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, irreg. resp) decreased LOC and fixed/dilated pupils.
Define Rheumatoid Arthritis
autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by joint inflammation resulting in decreased mobility and swelling of joints
S&S of Rheumatoid Arthritis
inflammation begins in joins, scar tissue develops limiting ROM, some have high fever & rash,
Tx for rheumatoid arthritis
salicaylates to reduce inflammation and steroids. goals of tx are to reduce pain and prevent contractures.
What are the side effects of RA treatment?
Reyes syndrome (aspirin therapy).
What is the most important criteria for reporting child abuse?
Stories dont match symptoms
Type 1 Diabetes is caused by
autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells. AKA Juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes.
clinical manifestations of diabetes 
fasting plasma glucose > or equal 126
2-hour glucose > or equal 200
random glucose > or equal 200
S&S of Diabetes type 1
dry skin, sores slow to heal, grouchy
Diabetes type 2 is associated with
obesity and insulin resistenace.
S&S of Diabetes Type 2
obese w/high waist circumference, may present in diabetes ketoacidosis
What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
a life threatening condition that primarily occurs with type 1 diabetes.
What causes diabetic ketoacidosis?
incorrect or missed doses, illness, trauma, surgery.  The body needs fuel. Without glucose, the body breaks down fatty acids.  The by product, ketone bodies accumulate resulting in ketoacidosis. This causes osmotic diureses resulting in dehydration, acidosis and hyperosmolarity.
S&S of DKA
polyuria, polydispea, wt loss, abd.pain, N&V, tachycardia, Signs of dehydration, flushed ears and cheeks, kussmaul respirations, altered LOC, hypotension, hyperglycemia, glycosuria and ketonuria
What are the 2 main types of Leukemia?
ALL: Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia
AML: acute myelogenous leukemia
S&S of Leukemia
weak, pale (anemia due to decreased erythrocytes), tired, fever(infect. from neutropenia), petechia (bleeding from reduced platelet production)
Define Wilms tumor
Nephroblastoma (intrarenal abdominal tumor)
S&S of Wilms Tumor
asympotmatic firm lobulated mass on one side of the midline of abdomen. grows quickly (doubles size in about 11 days)
Nursing consideration for assessment of wilms tumor
do not palpate mass as you do not want cancerous cells to spread
Define thrombocytopenia
deficiency in platelets that can lead to a bleeding disorder
define leukopenia
deficiency in the # of white blood cells that can be caused by immune or bone marrow disorder
Define anemia
reduction in the # of RBC's
What is the clinical manifestion of a brain tumor
How does an infant view death?
Has no understanding of concept
may sense caregiver is tense and routines are altered.
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