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HDL
>60
LDL
<100
Triglycerides
<150
Cholesterol
<200
Abdominal aortic aneurism
sonogram >4 cm refer to vascular sugeon
DASH
dietary approaches to stop hypertension
Normal bp
120/80
Pre-hypertension
120/80-139/89
Stage 1 hypertension
140/90-159/99
Meds to manage stage 1 HTN
Thiazide-type dieuretics
Stage 2 hypertension
160/100 or higher
TSH
0.5-4.5 (usually in 1-3 range)
CO
SV X HR
CO average
3.5-8L/min
CO definition
amount of blood heart pumps each minute
CO males
5L
CO females
4.5L
Pulmonary circulation pressure
low pressure of 12mm Hg
Systemic Circulation pressure
high pressure system MAP 90-100mm Hg
Heart Failure Class 1
No limitations
Heart Failure Class 2
symptoms with usual activities
Heart Failure Class 3
symptoms with minimal activities
Heart Failure Class 4
inability to carry out physical activity without discomfort; symptoms at rest.
Liver tests inflammation markers (Kepferr’s function)
-AST (from other organs) and ALT (liver specific) –decreased albumin=sick liver –increased prothrombin time and bleeding is delayed because platelets and vitamin K not synthesized.
Liver
receives 30% of resting CO and holds 13% of body’s blood volume.
Bile secretion
700-1200ml/day
Bilibubin
main bile pigment that is formed from breakdown of heme in red blood cells. Normal level=1 (if its your shoe size there is trouble!)
Ascites cause
increased hydrostatic pressure > fluid shift into belly > plus no albumin > fluid shifts from vascular to interstitial belly
Hepatitis A/E
fecal and oral causes
Hepatitis E
3rd world countries (pregnant susceptible)
Hepatitis B C and D
blood bourne.
Hepatitis D
delta virus (because can only get it if you have B)
Myoglobin
examine 1st! increases with 1 hour. Normal <90 mcg/l
Troponin T
increases within 3 hours. Normal <.03 ng/ml
CPK
22-198
CPK-MB
0-4% increases in 4-8 hours
St depression
myocardial ischemia. Caused by: not enough blood. atherosclerosis. Vasospasm. thrombosis embolism.
ST elevation
myocardial injury. Injured area remains electrically positively charged.
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