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a) Non-B-Complex 1. Ascorbic acid (C)
-Coenzyme in OH rxns -Required for maintenance of normal CT & wound -Reducing agent -Abs of iron -Antioxidant
Scurvy -dec. in collagen synthes. -swollen, sore & spongy gums w/bleeding & loose teeth -anemia -poor wound healing -swollen joints & mm pain

Causes of Deficiency:
-Insufficient DI of fresh fruit & veggies -Elderly and EtOH
b) B-Complex 1. Energy Releasing -Thiamine (B1)
-Cofactor (active as TPP) 1)PDH 2)a-ketoglu dehyd 3)Transketolase 4)branched chain aa Beri-beri -dry skin -irritability -progressive paralysis Wernicke’s Enceph. -confusion, ataxia -nystag, eye paralysis -peripheral neuropathy Korsakoff’s psychosis -if untreated -irreversible amnesia and     deficits in learn & mem   -EtOH -Cancer, AIDS -Insufficient dietary intake (DI) -Severe liver Dz
b) B-Complex 1. Energy Releasing -Riboflavin (B2)
-Cofactors for oxidase & dehydrogenase enzymes (active as FAD & FMN) Ariboflavinosis -Cheilosis, derm, ang Stomatitis, cataracts - rare
B-Complex 1. Energy Releasing-Niacin (B3)
-Cofactor for oxidase & dehyrdogenase enzymes (active as NAD+ & NADP+) -Repair of UV light damage -Tx of hyperlipidemia (nic acid inhibits lipolysisà dec. in VLDL synthesis)   Pellagra -photosensitive derm -diarrhea -dementia -lead to death -dec. DI -inadequate Intake of trp -Hartnup’s dz (fail to absorb trp)
B-Complex 1. Energy Releasing: Biotin
-Coenzyme for carbox rxns 1)PC 2)AcCoA carbox 3)Propionyl CoA carbox 4)Br chain AA metab   Extremely rare Large amount of egg whitesàavidin binds biotinàno absorption
B-Complex 1. Energy Releasing-Pantothenic Acid
-Transfer of acyl groups as component of CoA -Component of FA synthase   Burning Foot Syndrome
2. Hematopoietic   -Folic Acid
-Cofactor (TH4) -1 carbon transfers in synthesis of AA, purines, and Thymidine -Prevents neural tube defects -Abs & stored in duodenum and Jejunum, small amount in liver   Megaloblastic anemia -dec. in purines & TMPà nucleic synthesis and affects cell div -Large immature RBC precursors accumulate Neural Tube defects -inc. demand (pregnancy & lac) -dec. DI -EtOH -poor absorption Tx: methotrexate          
-Cobalmin (B12) (animal sources only)
-Cofactor for: 1)Methylmalonyl CoA (breakdown of odd #’d FA) 2)Homocysteine methyl-transferase (Met synthesis) -Abs & Storage *Dietary B12 released from food in stomach *Binds to intrinsic factoràileumàmucosal cellsàinto circulation *Storage in liver for years   Neurological    abnormalities -accum of odd #’d FA into cell memb of nn’s -dementia & degen of SC 2* Folate Deficiency àmegaloblastic anemia -Insufficient DI -Dz of ileum (IF) -Resection of gut (IF) -Pernicious anemia (IF) -pancreatic insufficiency
3. Other -Pyridoxine (B6) plant, Pryidoxal and pyridoxamine animal
-Cofactor (active as PLP) -Required for: *Glycogen Phosphorylase *Heme Synthesis (ALA synthase) *AA metabolism *TrpàNiacin   rare Microcytic anemia -MCV<80 Secondary Pellagra -can’t synthesize B3   -Women on oral BC -EtOH and elderly -newborns on certain formula -Isoniazid for Tb infection inactivates PLP
II. Fat Soluble a) Vitamin A
  Deficiency & Toxicity   -Fxn’l forms are retinoic acid, retinol, retinal & b-carotene -Retinal= visual cycle -b-carotene= antioxidant -Retinoic acid= steroid for epithelial cell diff. -Retinol & retinal= reproduction and fertility -growth of bones Abs & transport *Retinolàretinol esterà chylomicrons transported to liver storage Release from liver *Transported to extra- hepatic  tissues as a complex w/RBP & enters   Eye -night blindness -keratinzation of corneaàxeropthalmia Skin -impaired mucosal fxn -thick & dry skin Toxicity -dry, itchy skin & derm -hepatomegaly -thin & fracture long bones -hair loss -inc. in ICP -TERATOGEN   -Dec. DI -2* to fat malabsorption
Fat Soluble: b) Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol D3, ergocalciferol D2) No plants. But in fish
Maintains plasma Ca2+ by: -Inc. uptake of Ca2+ & P from intestine -inc. reabsorp of Ca2+ from kidney -Inc resorption of bone Low Plasma Ca2+ -Childrenàricketts -Adultsàosteomalacia Hypoglycemia and hypo-phoshatemia -low plasma Ca2+ and P   Toxicity -MOST TOXIC -Nausea, vomiting, mm weakness, thirst, hyper-calcemia & Ca2+ depo on organsàmetastatic calcification -Inadequate DI (Vegans are at risk) -Inadequate sunlight -Renal and liver dz -Fat malabsorption
Fat Soluble: c) Vitamin K
-Coenzyme for gamma-carboxylation of Glu of clotting F’s II, VII, IX, X & prothrombin -Poor clotting and bleeding disorders -maybe hemorrhagic dz in newborns   Toxicity -Hemolytic anemia & Jaundice in infants   -Dec bac in gut -Insufficient DI -Newborns cannot synth bc they have sterile gut
Fat Soluble: 
d) Vitamin E
-Antioxidant -Against Heart dz Abs & Transport *requires dietary fat for abs & transport into chylo *transported from liver to adipose via VLDL’s Hemolytic anemia in newborns -oxidative sress of RBC’s Others(adults/children) -mm weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, nystagmus   Toxicity -LEAST toxic of vitamins   -Severe fat malabsorption -Premature infants
III. Minerals a) Iron
  Deficiency & Overload   -O2 transport *in Hemoglobin (60-70% total body iron *in Myoglobin (3.5%) -In Fe-containing enzymes *P450, ETC, catalase Abs & Transport -Dietary preferred -abs help by Vitamin C -in blood w/transferrin -storage in Bone marrow= Hb synth, Liver= enzyme synth., MM= MyoG synth. *stored mainly as FERRITIN and smaller as hemosiderin Fe def anemia -dec. Hgb & dec. O2 to tissues -pallor, tiredness, SOB, palpitations Epithelial abnormalities -Angular Stomatitis -glossitis   Overload -Fe depo in tissues -sites of depo: *liver (fibrosis, cirrhosis) pancreas (bronze diabetes), Heart, Skin (gray/bronz skin bc of inc. melanin), Testes (impote), Arthopathy   -Inc. requirements (pregnancy) -Inadequate DI (vegans) -Blood loss -Malabsorption   Overload causes -2* to inc. administration of Fe -Idiopathic  1* hemochromatosis
-Cofactor for enzymes *dehydrogenases *peptidases *SOD, carbonic anhydrase, and some in DNA & protein synthesis -Zn finger DNA BD   Acrodermatitis -growth retardation -hypogonadism -delayed wound healing -lesions around orfices & hands/feet -Malabsorption in SI in acrodermatitis enteropathica(rare)
c) Copper
-Cofactor for enzymes *lysyl oxidase (coll & elas) *tyrosinase (melanin) *Dopamine  B-hydrox *Cyt-c Oxidase (ETC) *SOD *Ceruloplasmin Menke’s Kinky Hair synd. -depig of hair -arterial degeneration -neuronal degen -growth failure & anemia Overload -Wilson’s Dz *liver can’t excrete Co in bile. Deposition in: 1)liver 2)brain 3)eyes  
d) Iodine
-Synthesis of thyroid hormones -Goiter bc overproduction of TSH -During pregnancy may lead to hypothyroidismà cretinism -T3 & T4 exert neg feedback on hypothalamus & ant pit. usually which inhibits release of TRH & TSH, BUT… -lack of iodine leads to no inhibition bc no T3 & T4 being made
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