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Metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.
Catabolic and Anabolic
Catabolic Reaction
Reactions that break down large chemicals and release energy
Anabolic reaction
Chemical reaction that builds up large chemicals and requires energy
Ingestion
The acquisition of food and other raw materials.
Digestion
The process of converting food into a useable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body.
Absorption
The passage of nutrient molecules through the lining of the digestive tract.
*Absorbed molecules pass through cells lining the digestive tract by diffusionor active transport.
Transport
The circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues and the removal of waste products from the tissues.
Assimilation
The building up of new tissues from digested food material
Respiration
The consumption of oxygen by the body.
*Cells use oxygen to convert glucose into ATP, a ready source of energy for cellular activities
Excretion
The removal of waste products (CO2, H2O, Urea) produced during metabolic procesess like respirastion and assimilation.
Synthesis
The creation of complex molecules from simple ones. (anabolism)
Regulation
The control of physiological activities.
Homeostasis
The body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment amid changing external environments. Also includes regulation by hormones and the nervous system.
Irritability
The ability to respond to a stimulus.
Growth
an increase in size caused by a synthesis of new materials.
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants convert CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates. Sunlight is harness by chlorophyll to drive this reaction.
Reproduction
The generation of additional individuals of a species.
Protoplasm
The substance of life.
The living contents of a cell that are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Atom
The unit of an element.
Atoms are joined by chemical bonds to form compounds.
Molecule
The unit of a compound
Inorganic Compound
Does not contain the element Carbon.
*Salts and HCl.
Organic Compounds
Contain the element Carbon and are made by living systems.
*Lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids...
Carbohydrates
Composed of the elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio respectively.
They are used as storage forms of energy or as structural molecules.
Monosaccharide
Single sugar subunits.
*Glucose and Fructose
Disaccharide
Composed of two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis.
Dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule.
Polysaccharide
Polymers or chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits.
Made by dehydration. Large polymers can be broken down with hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Chemical reaction by adding water.
Lipids
Chief means of food storage in animals. Also provides insulation and protection.
Composed of C,H,and O.
Lipids consist of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone. They do not form polymers.
Fatty Acid
Have long carbon chains that give them their hydrophobic (fatty) character. Carboxylic acid groups make them acidic.
Phospholipids
Contains glycerol, 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group, and nitrogen-containing alcohol.
Waxes
Esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols.
*Protective coatings on skin, fur, leaves, exoskeletons....
Steroids
3 fused cyclochexane rings and 1 fused cyclopentane ring.
*Cholesterol, sex hormones, and corticosteroids.
Carotenoids
fatty, acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying 6-membered carbon rings at each end. PIGMENTS.
Porphyrins
aka tetrapyrroles. Contain 4 joined pyrrole rings. Often complexed with a metal.
Proteins
Polymers of amino acids.
Amino Acids are joined by peptide bonds through dehydration.
Contain C, H, O, and N. May also contain Phosphorus and Sulfur
Protein Primary Structure
Sequence of amino acids
Protein Secondary Structure
Based on hydrogen bonding between adjacent amino acids.
Results in B-pleated sheets or A helices.
Portein Tertiary Structure
3D structure based on R-group interactions between adjacent amino acids.
Results in Globular or fibrous proteins
Protein Quaternary Structure
The interaction and joining of two or more independant polypeptide chains.
Simple proteins
Composed entirely of amino acids
Albumins and globulins
Primarily globular in nature. Functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes.
Scleroproteins
Fibrous in nature and act at structural proteins.
*Collagen
Conjugated Proteins
Contain a simple protein portion plus at least one nonprotein fraction.
Lipoproteins
Proteins bound to lipid
Mucoproteins
Proteins bound to carbohydrate
Chromoproteins
Proteins bound to pigmented molecules
Metalloproteins
protein complex around a metal ion
Nucleoproteins
Proteins containing histone or protamine (nuclear protein) bound to nucleic acids.
Hormones
Proteins that function as chemical messengers secreted into the circulation.
*Insulin and ACTH
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