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Address Resolution Protocol. An Internet protocol used to map an IP address to a MAC address. Defined in RFC 826.
default gateway/default router
On an IP host, the IP adderss of some router to which the host sends pakets when the packet's destination address is on a subnet other than the local subnet.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used by hosts to dynamically discover and lease an IP address, and learn teh correct subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS server IP addresses.
Domain Name System. An application layer protocol used throughout the Internet for translating hostnames into their associated IP addresses.
host part
A term used to describe a part of an IPv4 address that is used to uniquely identif a host inside a subnet. The host part is identified by the bits of value 0 in the subnet mask.
IP address
In IP Version 4 (IPv4), a 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/CP. Each address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork.
logical address
A generic reference to addresses as defined by Layer 3 protocols, which do not have to be concerned with the physical details of the underlying physical media. Used mainly to contrast these addresses with data-link addresses, which are generically considered to be physical addresses because they differ based on the type of physical medium.
network broadcast address
In IPv4, a special address in each classful network that can be used to broadcast a packet to all hosts in the same classful network. Numerically, the address has the same value as the network number in the network part of the address, and all 255s in the host octets - for example, is the network broadcast address for classful network
network number/network address
A number that uses dotted decimal notation like IP addresses, but the number itself represents all hosts in a single Class A, B, or C IP network.
network part
The portion of an IPv4 address that is either 1,2,or 3 octets/bytes long, based on whether the address is in a ClassA, B, or C network.
routing table
A list of routes in a router, with each route listing the destination subnet and mask, the router interface out which to forward packets destined to that subnet, and, as needed, the next-hop router's IP address.
subnet broadcast address
A special address in each subnet, specifically the largest numberic address in the subnet, designed so that packets sent to this address should be delivered to all hosts in that subnet.
subnet number/subnet address
In IPv4, a dotted decimal number that represents all addresses in a single subnet. Numberically, the smallest value in the range of numbers in a subnet, reserved so that it cannot be used as a unicast IP address by a host.
subnet part
In a subnetted IPv4 address, interpreted with classful addressing rules, one of three parts of the structure of an IP address, with the subnet part uniquely identifying different subnets of a classful IP network.
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