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Target Behavior
Behaviors to be improved in a beahvior modifivation program
Behavioral Assessment
The collection and analysis of information and data in order to (a) identify and describe target beavhiors (b) identify possible causes of the beahivor (c) guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment, and (d) evaluate treatment outcome
The people, animals, objects, and events currently present in one's immediate surroundings that impinge on ones sense receptors and that can affect behavior
Any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism. 
"The Dead Man Test"
Behavior Modification
The systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals' covert and overt behaviors in order to enhance their daily functioning
Behavior Analysis
The scientific study of the laws that govern the behavior of humans and animals
Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis
(a) a focus on measurable behavior that is socially significant (b) a strong emphasis on the learning principles frequently referred to as operant conditioning to develop treatment strategies (c) an attempt to clearly demonstrate that the applied treatment was responsible for the improvement in the behavior that was measured (d) a demonstration of generalizable and long-lasting improvments in behavior
Positive Reinforcer
A stimulus which, when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to increase in frequency
Positive Reinforcement
If, in a given situation, somebody does something that is followed immediately by a positive reinforcer, then that person is more likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation
Operant Behaviors
Behaviors that operate on the environmnet to generate consequences and are in turn influenced by those consequences
Escape Conditioning/Negative Reinforcement
A contingency in which an aversive stimulus is removed immediately following a response
Premack Principle
The opportunity to engage in a highly probable behavior can be used to reinforce a behavior that has a lower probability of occuring
A period of time during which an individual does not experience the reinforcer
Condition in which an individual has experienced a reinforcer to such a extent that it is temporarily no longer reinforcing
Motivating Operations (MOs)
An event or condition that (a) temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher, and (b) influences behavior that normally leads to that reinforcer or punisher
Direct Effect
Strengthening of a response that is followed immediately by a reinforcer
Indirect Effect
Strengthening of a response that is followed by a reinforcer even though the reinforcer is delayed
Said of a reinforcer with respect to a behavior if the behavior must occur before the reinforcer will occur
Said of a reinforcer if it is presented at a particular time regardless of the preceding behavior
Adventitious Reinforcement
Strengthening of behavior accidentally when it is followed by a reinforcer even if the behavior did not actually produce the reinforcer
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior that is strengthened by adventitious reinforcement
Natural Environment
Setting in which natural reinforcers occur
Natural Reinforcers
Unprogrammed reinforcers that occur in the normal course of everday living
Programmed Reinforcers
Reinforcers that are arranged systematically in behavior modification programs
Unconditioned Reinforcers
A stimulus that is reinforcing without prior learning or conditioning
Conditioned Reinforcers
A stimulus that was not origionally reinforcing, but has become a reinforcer from beign paired or associated with another reinforcer
Backup Reinforcers
A stimulus that is deliverately associated with other simuli to cause them to become conditioned reinforcers
Token Economy/System
Economy: Group can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviors and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers
System: Individuals can earn tokens for performing desirable behaviors and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers 
Simple Conditioned Reinforcer
A conditioned reinforcer paried with a single backup reinforcer
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer
A conditioned reinforcer that is paried with more than one kind of backup reinforcer
Operant: The withholding of a reinforcer following a previously reinforced response that weakens the response 
Respondent: Presenting a CS while withholding the US with the result that the CS gradually loses its compability of eliciting the CR 
Continuous Reinforcer
An arrangement in which each instance of a particular response is reinforced
Intermittent Reinforcement
An arrangement in which a behavior is reinforced only occasionally rather than every time it occurs
Extinction Burst
An increase in responding during extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
THe reappearance of an extinguished behavior following a rest
Schedule of Reinforcement
A rule specifying which occurrences of a given behavior, if any, will be reinforced
Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR)
A reinforcer occurs each time a fixed number of responses of a particular type are emitted
Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR)
A reinforcer occurs after a certain number of a particular response, and the nmber of responses required for each reinforcer changes unpredictably from one reinforcer to the next
Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI)
A reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after a fxzed period of time
Variable-Interval Schedule (VI)
A reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after an interval of time, and the lenght of the interval changes unpredictably from one reinforcer to the next
Limited Hold
A finite amount of time after a reinforcer becomes available that a response will produce it 
(Only in interval schedule 
Fixed-Duration Schedule (FD)
A reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time
Variable-Duration Schedule (VD)
A reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time, and the interval of time from reinforcer to reinforer changes unpredictably
Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement
WHen each of two or more behaviors is reinforced on differente schedules at the same time
Differential Reinforcement of Low (DRL) Rates
A reinforcer is presented only if a particular response occurs at a low rate; can be programmed as limited responding DRL or space-responding DRL
Limited-Responding DRL
A schedule that specifies the maximum allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occur
Spaced-Responding DRL
A specified behavior must not occur during a specific interval, and after the interval has passed, an instance of that behavior must then occur for a reinforcer to occur
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding (DRO)
A reinforcer is presented only if a specified response does not occur during a specified period of time 
aka: Other
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible (DRI) Behavior
Withholding reinforcers for a particular response and reinforcing an incompatible response
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative (DRA) Behavior
Extinction of a problem behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior that is topographically dissimilar to but not necessarily incompatible with the problem behavior
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