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Which of the following is not considered part of plasma?
The cellular component of blood includes all of these except:
endothelial cells.
Which of the following are not involved in the first line of defense of the immune system?
white blood cells
Germs can penetrate the eyes, but bacterial infections in the eye are relatively rare. Why is this?
Tears, which constantly wash over the eye, contain an anti-bacterial enzyme.
What is the role of basophil and mast cells during an immune response?
They release histamine, which increases membrane permeability.
Some believe that taking aspirin to lower a fever is not advisable. Why would this be?
Raising body temperature is thought to reduce bacterial growth rate.
Employing about 20 proteins, ________________ consists of a series of reactions that lead to the death of invading microbes.
the complement system
Which of the following is likely to occur during the early stages of inflammation?
release of histamine from basophils
Which of the following is responsible for triggering allergy symptoms?
Mast cells
Which of the following does not serve as a part of the body’s nonspecific defense system?
Which of the following are involved in the humoral response?
A and B.

B cells and the antibodies they produce are the main components of the humoral response.
B cells begin as eurythrocytes and T cells start off as lymphocytes.

Correct. Both B cells and T cells begin as lymphocytes. B cells mature in the bone marrow and T cells mature in the thymus.

Which of the following is not equivalent?

Lymph in lymph vessels, plasma in blood vessels and interstitial fluid in tissues are all equivalent. Blood contains cells which are not found in the other choices.
The __________________ is a gland located just above the heart where lymphocytes mature into T cells.
The _______________ is located on the left side of the abdomen just above the stomach. It serves as a storage site for leukocytes.
B cells got their name from the bone marrow where they mature.

B cells were first discovered in the bursa fabricus of birds and were named for that organ.
Which of the following are the characteristics necessary for an immune system?
Recognition of self vs. non-self; diversity; specificity; memory
Which statement regarding cytokines is correct?
Interleukins are cytokines.
True or false?

T cells produce antibodies.

T cells do not produce antibodies. Helper T cells are stimulated by antigen-presenting macrophages, and in turn stimulate B cell and cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells are stimulated by infected antigen-presenting body cells, and are able to kill infected cells. B cells produce antibodies.
True or false?

Helper T cells work by increasing the response of other immune cells.

____________________ are undifferentiated cells that will turn into ____________________ in the bone marrow and ________________ in the thymus.
Lymphocytes, B cells, T cells
Once a T cell becomes activated by an antigen, it converts into a plasma cell that then produces both antibodies against the invader as well as memory cells that will stay in the blood stream for the rest of the organism’s life.

This statement describes what happens to a B cell when it is activated by an antigen. T cells are converted into effector cells, which then produce cytoxic T cells and memory T cells.
Which of the statements regarding humoral immunity is false?
Humoral immunity is also known as cell-mediated immunity.

Apoptosis is
programmed cell death
How does the body prevent the immune system from attacking itself?
Throughout their development, B and T cells are routinely exposed to the body's own chemicals to prevent them from attacking normally occurring molecules in the body.
What type of molecules are MHC molecules?
What is the difference between Class I and Class II MHC molecules?
Class I MHC molecules are found on all nucleated cells and Class II MHC molecules are found on macrophages, B cells and activated T cells.
The activated B cell forms a ____________________, which produces antibodies, and clones itself to form ___________________________.
plasma cell; memory cells.
B cells are involved in the humoral immune response and T cells are involved in the cell-mediated immune response.
Which of the following statements about helper T cells is incorrect?
Helper T cells produce antibodies.
Which of the following statements about cytoxic T cells is true?
All of the above are true.

Cytoxic T cells are activated by antigens presented by Class I MHC proteins. Upon activation, two things can happen. They can form activated cytoxic T cells and they
Foreign antigens that are processed within infected body cells are presented by ___________ to ____________.
class I MHC molecules; cytotoxic T cells
Which statement regarding a typical antibody molecule is true?
The heavy and light chains are held together by covalent bonds.
Foreign molecules that cause an immune response are called:
_______________________ are involved in the activation of both the cell-mediated and humoral responses.
Helper T cells
________________ is a glycoprotein on the surface of macrophages, B cells and T cells that presents an antigen to helper T cells.
Class II MHC
What is the role of IL2 in the immune response?
IL2 activates cytoxic T cells and B cells.
Along with activating cytoxic T cells and B cells, what is the other role that helper T cells play in the immune response?
Helper T cells also produce clones of themselves, which become memory T cells.
Foreign antigens engulfed by macrophages are presented by ___________ to _____________.
class II MHC molecules; helper T cells
Which of the following statements regarding cytokines is correct?
Cytokines allow T cells to communicate with B cells.
All immature B cells have the potential to produce antibodies for any one of the infinite number of antigens, however when a B cell matures it becomes and remains specific to a single antigen.
An activated helper T cell secretes ____________, which stimulate B cells to clone, producing plasma cells and _________________.
IL2, memory B cells.
The method of killing that cytoxic T cells use is important to the immune system because
all of the above

When a cytoxic T cell is presented with an antigen bound to MHC I on a cell it releases perforin which forms a hole in the infected cell membrane. Cytoplasm leaks out and water rushes in, causing the cell to burst. This kills the infected cell, depriving the pathogen of a home and presenting it to other antibodies circulating in the organism.
Cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells by
releasing perforin.
Which of the following is not true regarding helper T cells?
They are activated by free antigens in the blood stream.
B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce:
1 of 7 _________________ are examples of T-independent antigens. _________________ are examples of T-independent antigens.
A and C.

Both of proteins in bacterial cell walls and flagella elicit T independent responses and no B memory cells are produced by the immune system
In the late 1700s, Edward Jenner’s discovery of the vaccine was linked to what observation?
People who milked cows and came down with cowpox did not come down with small pox.
When someone is vaccinated, an immune response to a pathogen is triggered even though the person does not get sick. Memory B cells are then present in the body resulting in an immunity to the disease.
A(n) _____________________ is a harmless variant of a pathogen that stimulates an immune response against the actual pathogen.
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