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Cloned from: CCNA Vocabulary

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Data Center
Central management location that monitors all network resources.
  • ·         Also known as the NOC
  • ·         usually has:
o   Raised floors (allow for cabling to run under the floor to equipment) o   High performance UPS systems and air conditioning equipment to provide a safe operating environment for equipment o   Fire suppression systems integrated into the ceiling o   Network monitoring stations, servers, backup systems, and data storage o   Access layer switches and distribution layer routers, if it serves as a Main Distribution Facility (MDF) for the building or campus where it is located
Server Farm
Collection of servers located in a central facility and maintained by the central group to provide server needs for organizations. A server farm usually has primary and backup server hardware for load balancing, redundancy, and fault tolerance purposes. Server farm architecture provides the operation and maintenance of servers.
Load Balancing
Ability of a router to distribute traffic over all network interfaces that are the same distance from the destination address. Load balancing increases the use of network segments which improves bandwidth. A load-balancing algorithm may use both line speed and reliability information.
Network Attached Storage High-speed, high-capacity data storage that groups large numbers of disk drives that are directly attached to the network and can be used by any server. A NAS    device is typically attached to an Ethernet network and is assigned its own IP address
Storage Area Network Data communication platform that interconnects servers and storage at Gigabaud speeds. By combining LAN networking models with server performance and mass storage capacity, SAN eliminates bandwidth issues and scalability limitations created by previous SCSI bus-based architectures
Rack Unit Standard form factor measurement for the vertical space that equipment occupies. A rack unit is equal to the height of 1.75 inches (4.4cm). A device is measured in RUs. If a device is 1.75 inches tall, it is 1RU. If it is 3.5 inches tall, it is 2RU.
Structured Cabling
Using an internationally recognized standard to implement a physical network cabling design, this is easily understood by installers, network administrators, and any other technicians who work with cables.
Disturbance in an electronic circuit from an external electrical source.
Telecommunications Room
Facility that contains network and telecommunications equipment, vertical and horizontal cable terminations, and cross-connect cables. Also known as a riser, a distribution facility, or a wiring closet.
Intermediate Distribution Facility Secondary communications room for a building that uses a star networking topology. An IDF has a frame that cross-connects the user cable media to individual user line circuits and may serve as a distribution point for multi-pair cables from the main distribution frame. The IDF is dependent on the MDF
Main Distribution Facility Primary communications room for a building. An MDF is the central point of a star networking topology where patch panels, hubs, and routers are located. It is used to connect public or private lines coming into the building to internal networks.
Access Point Access Layer device that connects to a wired network and relays data between wireless and wired devices. An AP connects wireless communication devices to form a wireless network to allow roaming.
Power over Ethernet Powering standard of network devices over Ethernet cable. IEEE 802.3af and cisco specify two different PoE methods. Cisco power sourcing equipment and powered devices support both PoE methods.
Point of Presence Physical connection between a communication facility provided by an ISP or local telephone company, and an organization’s main distribution facility.
Indicated point between carrier equipment and CPE The demarc provides a boundary that designates responsibility for equipment between the service provider (SP) and customer. Equipment from the service provider up to the point of demarcation is the responsibility of the provider; anything past the demarc point is the responsibility of the customer.
Service Provider Organization, such as the local phone or cable company, that provides Internet service.
Denial of Service Attack by a single system on a network that floods the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, such as a web server, with the purpose of shutting it down.
One or more router or access servers designated as a buffer between any connected public networks and a private network. A firewall router uses access lists and other methods to ensure the security of the private network.
Digital WAN carrier facility that transmits DS-1-formatted data at 1.544 Mbps through the telephone-switching network, with the use of AMI or binary 8-zero substitution coding.
Wide-area digital transmission scheme used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of 2.048 Mbps. E1 lines can be leased for private use from common carriers.
Punchdown block
A device that connects telephone or data lines to each other. The solid copper wires are punched down into short open-ended slots to establish connectivity.
Customer Premise Equipment Terminating equi0pment, such as terminals, telephones, and modems, supplied by the telephone company, installed at a customer site, and connected to the telephone company network.
1) Connection between two systems or devices. 2) In routing terminology, a network connection. 3) In telephony, a shared boundary devined by common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and meanings of interchanged signals. 4) the boundary between adjacent layers of the OSI model
Default Gateway
Path of a packet on a network used by default, or as the gateway of last resort, when the destination hosts are not listed in the routing table.
Form Factor
Physical size and shape of computer components. Components that share the same form factor are physically interchangeable.
Transmission using frequencies or channels outside the frequencies or channels normally used for information transfer. Out-of-band signaling is often used for error reporting in situations in which in-band signaling can be affected by whatever problems the network might be experiencing.
Management technique for connecting a computer to a network device. In-band management is used to monitor and make configuration changes to a network device over a network connection.
Port density
Amount of ports per RU on a switch
Wire speed
Rate that packets are forwarded on a network.
Virtual Local Area Network Group of devices on a network, typically end-user stations, that communicate as if attached to the same network segment even though they may be on different segments. VLANs are configured on workgroup switches. Switches with VLANs may interconnect using VLAN trunking protocols.
Content Addressable Memory MAC address table maintained by a switch. A CAM is recreated every time a switch is activated.
Aging timer
Period of time in which an entry must be used before a switch deletes it from the MAC address table.
Type of message sent to a single network destination.
Technique used by switches to pass traffic that is received on an interface to all other interfaces of the device except the interface on which the information was originally received.
Set of devices that receive broadcast frames originating from any of the devices within the set. A broadcast domain is typically bounded by routers because routers do not forward broadcast frames.
Collision Domain
Network area in Ethernet where frames that have collided are propagated. Repeaters and hubs have collision domains. LAN switches, bridges, and routers do not.
Division of a network into smaller segments, usually with the intention of increasing aggregate bandwidth to network devices.
Virtual Circuit Logical relationship created to ensure reliable communication between two network devices. A virtual circuit is defined by a virtual path identifier/virtual channel identifier pair, and can be either a permanent virtual circuit or switched virtual circuit. Virtual circuits are used in Frame Relay and X.25. In ATM, a virtual circuit is called a virtual channel.
When one function on a network takes a greater length of time than the reverse function. An example of an asymmetric function is the compression and decompression of data.
Uplink Ports
High-speed port that connects to areas that have a higher demand for bandwidth, such as another switch, a server farm, or other networks.
Chip that contains the central processing unit for the device.
Multilayer Switching
Device that filters and forwards packets based on MAC addresses and network addresses. A layer 2/ layer 3 switch is a multilayer switch.
Application-specific Integrated circuit Circuit that gives precise instructions for the functionality of a device during Layer 3 switching.
Act of storing data, or the location of stored data.
Store and forward Packet Switching
Technique in which frames are completely processed before being forwarded out of the appropriate port. Store and forward packet switching is a process that includes the calculation of the cyclic redundancy check and the verification of the destination address.
Cut-through switching
Process where data is streamed through a switch so that the leading edge of a packet exits the switch at the output port before the packet finishes entering the input port. Cut-through packet switching enables a device to read, process, and forward packets as soon as the destination address is looked up, and the outgoing port determined. Cut-through packet switching is also known as on-the-fly packet switching. Contrast with store and forward packet switching.
Cyclic Redundancy Check Store and Forward error checking technique that counts the number of packets the checksum generates by far end device and compares it to the checksum calculated from the data received. A CRC error may indicate noise, gain hits, or transmission problems on the data link or interface.
Frame Check Sequence Characters added to a frame for error control purposes. FCS is used in HDLC, Frame Relay, and other Data Link Layer protocols
Cut-through switching method where the switch forwards the frame before all of frame is received. Using the fast-forward method, the switch forwards the frame out of the destination port immediately when the destination MAC address is read. The switch does not calculate or check the CRC value. The fast-forward method has lowest latency but may forward collision fragments and damaged frames. This method of switching works best in a stable network with few errors.
A switching technique that forwards a frame after the first 64 bytes are received. Fragment-free switching has a higher latency than fast-forward switching.
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