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Runt
Frame that is less than 64 bytes, usually the result of a collision. In fragment-free switching, the switch reads the first 64 bytes of the frame before it begins to forward it out the destination port. Checkign the first 64 bytes ensures that the switch does not forward collision fragments.
Threshold value
Maximum number of errors that a switch allows before it will go into store and forwarding switching to slow traffic and correct the problem.
Adaptive Cut-through
Type of switching when the flow reverts back to fast-forward mode when the number of errors drops below the threshold value to an acceptable level.
Redundancy
1) Duplication of components on a network, such as devices, services, or connections, for the purpose of maintaining operability if any tools fails. 2) Portion of the total information contained in a message that can be eliminated without losing the contest.
Congestion
Traffic in excess of network capacity.
Availability
Condition of accessibility.
Switching loops
Causes duplicate frames to be sent throughout a network. A switching loop occurs when there is more than one path between two switches.
Broadcast storm
Undersirable network event in which many broadcasts are sent simultaneously across all network segments. A broadcast storm uses substantial network bandwidth and typically causes network time-outs.
Unicast Frames
Data packet that is addressed to a single destination
STP
Spanning Tree Protocol Bridge standards that use the spanning-tree algorithm and enable a bridge to dynamically work around loops in a network topology by creating a spanning tree. A bridge exchanges BPDU messages with other bridges to detect loops, and then removes the loops by shutting down bridge interfaces.
BPDU
Bridge Protocol Data Units STP hello packets that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges ni the network
Blocking
1) Condition in a switching system in which no paths are available to complete a circuit. 2) Condition when one activity cannot begin until another has been completed.
Listening
One of four states that a port cycles through when a switch powers on an STP network. The switch listens for BPDUs from neighboring switches.
Learning
One of four states that a port cycles through when a switch powers on an STP network. The switch uses information learned to forward a packet.
Forwarding
Process of sending a frame out of a port toward the destination by way of an internetworking device. Examples of devices that forward frames are hosts, repeaters, bridges, and routers.
Root Bridge
Also known as Root Switch Designated packet forwarding device in a spanning-tree implementation that receive topology information and notifies all other bridges in the network when topology changes are required. A root bridge prevents loops and provides a measure of defense against link failure.
Root Switch
Also known as Root Bridge Designated packet forwarding device in a spanning-tree implementation that receive topology information and notifies all other bridges in the network when topology changes are required. A root bridge prevents loops and provides a measure of defense against link failure.
BID
Bridge ID Identification of the root bridge which is the focal point in an STP network.
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