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Interpersonal Communication
communication between two or more people in an organization
Communicator
the person originating a message
Receiver
ther person receiving a message
Perceptual screen
a window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication
Message
thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver
Feedback
information fed back that completes two-way communication
Language
words, pronounciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a group of people
Data
uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts
Information
Data that have been interpreted, analyzed, and have meaning to some user.
Richness
the ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver.
Reflective listening
a skill intended to help the reciever and communicator clearly and fully understand the message sent
Two-way communication
a form of communication in which the communicator and receiver interact
One-way communication
a person sends a message to another person and no feedback, questions, or interaction follow
Barriers to communication
aspects of the communication content and context that can impair effective communication in a workplace
Gateways to communication
pathways through barriers to communication and antidotes to communication problems
Defensive communication
communication that can be aggressive, attacking, and angry, or passive and withdrawing
Nondefensive communication
Communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful
nonverbal commmunication
all elements of communication that do not involve words
Commmunicative disease
the absence of heartfelt communication in human relationships leading to loneliness and social isolation
Information communication technology (ICT)
various new technologies such as electronic mail, voicemail, teleconferencing, and wireless access, which are used for interpersonal communication
Group
two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction
Work team
a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Norms of behavior
The standards that a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members
Group Cohesion
the "interpersonal glue" that makes members of a group stick together
Social loafing
the failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group
Loss of individuality
Social Process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibilty for individual behavior
Status Structure
the set of authority and task relations among a group's members
Psychological intimacy
emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members
Integrated involvement
closeness achieved through tasks and activities
Task function
 an activity directly related to the effective completion of a teams work
Maintenance Function
Activity essential to effective, satisfying interpersonal relationships within a team or group
Teamwork
joint action by a team of people in which individual interests are subordinated to team unity
Programmed decision
simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule
Nonprogrammed decision
a new, complex decision that requires a creative solution
Effective decision
timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it
Rationality
logical, step by step approach to decision making with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences
Bounded rationality
a theory that suggests that there are limits to how rational a decision maker can actually be
Satisfice
to select the first alternative that is "good enough" because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize
Heuristics
shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity
Garbage can model
theory that contends that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic
Risk aversion
tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty
Escalation of commitment
tendency to continue to support a failing course of action
Intuition
a fast, positive force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information
Creativity
process influenced by individual and organizionational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products or both
Participative decision making
decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influence that making of those decisions
Synergy
Positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group
Social decision schemes
simple rules used to determine final group decisions
Groupthink
a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement resulting from pressures within the group
Group polarization
tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members
Brainstorming
technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject, while suspending evaluation until all the ides have been suggested
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