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# of moles solute per kg solvent
bronsted-lowry acid/base
acids donate protonsbases accept protons
lewis acid/base
acids accept electron pairsbases donate electron pairs
henderson-hasselbach equation
pH = pKa +  log  ([conj base]/[conj acid])
gibbs free energyspontaneous when?
ΔG = ΔH - TΔSspontaneous when ΔG < 0rxn at equilibrium when ΔG = 0
glycolysis - occurs where?requires what inputs?produces what?
requires 2 ATPproduces 4 ATP and 2 NADH
boiling point elevation & freezing point depression
constant times molALity of solution
IR Spectra - 2850-3000 cm-1
Alkane - stretch2 or 3 bands
IR Spectra - 3020-3100 cm-1
alkene, =CH and =CH2usually sharp
IR Spectra - 1630-1680 cm-1
alkene, C=C
IR Spectra - 1900-2000 cm-1
alkene, C=C asymmetric stretch
chirality rule
turn the steering wheel to the "R"ight
double bond E/Z
Z - zussamen, "together" - highest priority pair is cis   E - entgegen, "opposite" - highest priority pair is trans
IR Spectra: 1300-900 cm-1
fingerprint region
Krebs cycle:Where?Inputs?Outputs?
mitochondrial matrixreactants:Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + Q(ubiquinone) + GDP + Pi + 2 H2Oproducts:→ CoA-SH + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + QH2 + GTP + 2 CO2
aerobic respiration produces what from what?
Glycolysis: 2 ATP Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP Electron Transport Phosphorylation: 32 ATP Each NADH produced in Glycolysis is worth 2 ATP (2 x 2 = 4) - the NADH is worth 3 ATP, but it costs an ATP to transport the NADH into the mitochondria, so there is a net gain of 2 ATP for each NADH produced in gylcolysis Each NADH produced in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl COA and Krebs Cycle is worth 3 ATP (8 x 3 = 24) Each FADH2 is worth 2 ATP (2 x 2 = 4) 4 + 24 + 4 = 32 Net Energy Production: 36 ATP!
radial acceleration
v^2 / r
work equation
W = Fd cos θ where d is direction of motion and theta is angle of force
kinetic energy
0.5 * m v2
Power is...
rate at which work is done, Joules per second, or Watt
momentum is...
a vector, product of mass times velocity vector
alpha decay emits
helium nucleus, 2 protons and 2 neutrons
beta decay emits
an electron, turns neutron into proton
positron or beta-plus decay emits
positron, proton turns into neutron
gamma decay emits
high energy photons, no nucleus change
x of y cards