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The nail is an appendage of the skin and is part of what system? a) muscular, b)integumentary, c) skeletal or d) protective
b) Integumentary
the water content of the natural nail directly affects the nail's: a) length, b) grooves, c) flexibility or d) color
c) flexibility
the portion of living skin on which the nail plate sits is the: a) nail root, b) nail bed, c) nail groove or d) nail matrix
b) nail bed
the nail bed is supplied with many nerves and is attached to the nail plate with a thin layer of tissue called the: a) bed eponychium, b) bed lunula, c) nail mantle or d) bed epithelium
d) bed epithelium
the part of the nail where the natural nail is formed is the:  a) extension, b) matrix, c) lunula or d) free edge
b) matrix
the visible part of the matrix that extends underneath the living skin is called the: a) cuticle, b) nail walls, c) lunula or d) mantle
c) lunula
the most visible and functional part of the nail module is the: a) nail bed, b) nail plate, c) nail grooves or d) nail mantle
b) nail plate
the nail plate is constructed of how many layers of nail cells: a) 50, b) 75, c) 80 or d) 100
d) 100
the dead, colorless tissue attached to the nail plate that is responsible for preventing entry of foreign material and microorganisms is the: a) ligament, b) eponychium, c) cuticle or d) lunula
c) cuticle
the living skin at the base of the nail plate covering the matrix area is the: a) eponychium, b) hyponychium, c) free edge or d) bed epithelium
a) eponychium
the sliightly thickened layer of skin tha tlies underneath the free edge of the nail plate is the: a) eponychium, b) mantle, c) hyponychium or d) matrix
c) hyponychium
the fibrous tissues that connect the nail bed and matrix to the underlying bone are: a) bed epitheliums, b) specialized ligaments, c) open muscles or d) nail tendons
b) specialized ligaments
the portion of the natural nail plate that extends over the fingertip or toes is called the: a) cuticle area, b) nail body, c) free edge or d) extension
c) free edge
natural nails will continue to grow provided what part of the nail is healthy and undamaged: a) hyponychium, b) matrix, c) lunula or d) grooves
b) matrix
the nail that grows the fastest is on the: index finger, b) ring finger, c) middle finger or d) thumb
c) middle finger
the average rate of nail growth in the normal adult is about: a) 1/10 inch per mth, b) 1/4 inch per mth, c) 1/8 inch per mth or d) 1/2 inch per mth
a) 1/10 inch per month
ordinarily, replacement of the natural nail takes about: a) 1 to 2 mths, b) 2 to 3 mths, c) 4 to 6 mths or d) 7 to 8 mths
c) 4 to 6 months
the nail that grows the slowest is on the: a) index finger, b) thumb, c) matrix or d) free edge
b) thumb
normal, healthy nails grow in a variety of shapes, dependaing upon the shape of the: a) fingers, b) eponychium, c) matrix or d) free edge
c) matrix
the surface of a healthy natural nail should be: a) smooth and spotted, b) flixible and spotted, c) smooth and unspotted or d) pitted and rough
c) smooth and unspotted
clients with skin or nails that are infected, inflamed or swollen should be referred to a: a) technician, b) physician, c) stylist or d) specialist
b) physician
a nail condition where blood clots form under the nail plate due to a small injury of the nail plate is: a) bruised nail, b) blue nails, c) abnormal nails or d) bruised onychia
a) bruised nails
ridges running vertically down the natural nail plate are caused by: a) overgrowth and polish, b) medication and cold, c) uneven growth and age or d) bitten nails
c) uneven growth and age
to provide a smooth appearance to a natural nail plate with ridges, after careful buffing, apply: a) a coat of primer, b) antiseptic lotion, c) cuticle filler or d) ridge filler
d) ridge filler
nails with a noticeably thin, white nail plate that are more flexible than normal nails are: a) ingrown nails, b) bitten nails, c) leukonychia nails or d) eggshell nails
d) eggshell nails
visible depressions running across the width of the natural nail plate that are the result of a major illness or injury are: a) eggshell nails, b) narrow lines, c) beau's lines or d) hangnails
c) beau's lines
a condition that results from the living skin splitting around the nail is: a) tinea, b) agnail, c) furrows or d) white spots
b) agnail
redness, pain and swelling are signs of a: a) condition, b) disorder, c) infection or d) abrasion
c) infection
minor damage to the matrix that produces a whitish discoloration or white spots on the nails is: a) leukonychia, b) melanonychia, c) a hangnail or d) nail fungus
a) leukonychia
a dark band within the nail plate extending from the base to the free edge due to increased pigmentation is: a) melanin nails, b) onycholysis, c) onychophagy or d) melanonychia
d) melanonychia
split or brittle nails with a series of lengthwise ridges and a rough appearance to the surface of the nail plate is: a) onychophagy, b) onychophosis, c) onychorrhexis or d) plicatured nails
c) onychorrhexis
a highly curved nail plate often called "folded nail" caused by injury to the matrix or inherited, is a(n): a) bruised nail, b) bitten nail, c) plicatured nail or d) eggshell nail
c) plicatured nail
an abnormal condition that occurs when skin is streteched by the nail plate and is a result of damage to the eponychium or hyponychium is: a) curved nails, b) plicatured nails, c) eggshell nails or d) nail pterygium
nail pterygium
parasites that under some conditions may cause infections to the feet and hands are: a) pedis, b) flagella, c) fungi or d) tinea
fungi
in the early stages, a typical bacterial infection on the nail plate can be identified as a: a) yello-green spot, b) blue spot, c) brown-block spot or d) white-yellow spot
yellow-green spot
nail infections are caused by a large number of bacteria or: a) nail disorders, b) plicatured nails, c) fungal organisms or d) nail overgrowth
fungal organisms
the naturally occurring skin bacterium that can grow out of control and cause nail infections, incorrectly referred to as mold, is: a) pseudomonas aeruginosa, b) paronychia granular, c) pyogenic granular or d) plicatured nails
pseudomonas aeruginosa
any deformity or disease of the nails in general is called: a) onyx, b) onychia, c) onychosis or d) onychophosis
onychosis
inflammation of the nail matrix followed by shredding of the natural nail plate is: a) onychia, b) onyx, c) fungi or d) flagella
onychia
the lifting of the nail plate from the bed without sheding is a sign of: a) onychomadesis, b) nail psoriasis, c) eggshell nails or d) onycholysis
onycholysis
onychomadesis is the separation and falling off of a nail plate and can be traced to: a) darkening of nail, b) nail splitting, c) local infection or d) bitten nails
local infection
tiny pits or severe roughness on the surface of the nail plate is an indication of: a) local infection, b) ingrown nails, c) athlete's foot or d) nail psoriasis
nail psoriasis
a severe inflammation in which a lump of red tissue gros up from the nail bed to the nail plate is a sign of: a) pyogenic granuloma, b) onychia, c) tinea pedis or d) paronychia
pyogenic granuloma
tinea pedis is the medical term used to describe: a) scaling skin, b) whitish patches on the nail, c) athlete's foot or d) ingrown nails
athlete's foot
the nail professional's chair should be selected for durability, comfort, ergonomics and easy: a) portability, b) sanitizing, c) colors or d) padding
sanitizing
implements requiring disinfection should be placed in a covered container large enough for implements to be: a) partially immersed, b) seen easily, c) completely immersed or d) quickly immersed
completely immersed
total immersion of implements whil they are disinfecting is a requirement of the: a) MSDS, b) EPA, c) FDA or d) OSHA
EPA
implements should be removed from a disinfectant solution using: a) fingers, b) hands, c) tongs or d) handles
tongs
a manicuring implement not designed for reuse on an additional client is a: a) wooden pusher, b) metal pusher, c) cuticle nipper or d) small scissor
wooden pusher
cotton used on the end of a wooden pusher should be changed: a) when wet, b) after each use, c) after each client or d) when messy
after each use
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