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arrhythmias (dysehythmias)
Abmormal heart rhythms are problems with the conduction or electeical system of the heart.
Atrioventricular block
Bradycardia and heart block. Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
Heart Failure / Cardiac insufficiency
A syndrome traditionally defined as circulatory congestion as a result of the heart\'s inability to act as an effective pump. Formerly known as CHF
Pulmonary edema / Pleural effusion
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal pleurae.
Left Ventricular Failure
Left ventricle is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body\'s demands causing decreased cardiac output and pulmonary congestion leading ti an engorged capillaries which leaks and permeates air spce in the lungs.
Right Ventricular Failure
Occurs when the right ventricle is unable to pump effectively against increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation which can be the result of chronic pulmonary disease/pulmonary hypertension or left ventricular failure.
Orthopnea
An abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breath deeply or comfortably.
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
Sudden awakening from sleep because of shortness of breath. usually seen in HF
Digitalis Glycoside
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pulmonary Edema
The accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, most often caused by HF (severe left ventricular dysfunction).
Valvular Heart Disease
Stenosis- thickening of the valve tissue, causing the valve to narrow. Insufficiency - when a valve is unable to close completely.
P wave
The spreaf of excitation wave over the atria just before depolarization (contraction)
QRS wave
The spread of excitation wave over the ventricles as the ventricles depolarize (contract).
T wave
The electrical recovery and repolarization (relaxation) of ventricles.
STEMI
In an MI an elevation of the ST segment of the electrocardiograph.
Flutter
Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria; symptomatic of heart disease in which rhythm can reach up to 300 bpm and requires meds, electrical cardioversion or catheter ablation.
ECG Atrial Flutter
atrial flutter is in a saw tooth pattern where there are several rapid P waves compared with the slower ventricular rate (QRS).
Catheter Ablation
A minimally invasive treatment to treat cardiac arrhythmias by using radiofrequency energy delivered from the tip of a catheter inserted through a blood vessel and into the heart, destroys tissue that causes arrhythmias.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Antihypertensive drug that blocks the convetsion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents MI, CHF, CVA, and death. enalapril maleate (vasotec), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace)
Beta Blocker
Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart. Atenolol (tenormin), carvedilol (coreg), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol-XL), propranolol (inderol)
Calcium Channel Blocker
Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessel by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels. Amlodipine (norvasc), nifedipine (adalat CC, procardia), diltiazem (cardizem CD)
Cardiac Glycoside
digoxin (lonoxin)- Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat.
Nitrates
Drugs used in treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue. Nitroglycerin
BNP
Measurement of brain natriuretic in blood. BNP is elevated in pts. with heart failure and s useful in the diagnosis of CHF in pts with dyspnea who come to the ER.
Cardiac biomarkers
Chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack. Damaged heart muscles releases chemicals into the bloodstream. The substance tested for are troponin-I (cTnI) and troponin-T (cTnT). Troponin is a heart muscle protein released into circulation after myocardial injury.
Pentoxifylline (trental)
classification: hemorrheologic agent
action:decreases blood viscosity and improve its flow properties, resulting in increased blood flow to the affected microcirculation to enhance tissue circulation.
Uses: for treatment of intermittent claudication
S/E: nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, dizziness and headache
Quinidine
classification: Class 1a antidysrhythmic agent action:stabilizing the rate of conduction of impulses; slows the heart and changes a rapid irregular pulse to a slow regular pulse. Uses: Used to suppress a-fib, a-flutter, paroxysmal supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular contractions. S/E: diarrhea, dizziness, faintness, cinchonism ( rash, chills, fever, tinnitus, and increaed mental confusion), hypotension w/ diuretics and antigypertensive meds
Disopyramide (norpace)
classification: Class 1a antidysrhythmic agents action: prolong the duration of the electrical stimulation on cells and the refractory time between electrical impulses. Uses: used to treat a-fib, wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia. S/E: dry mouth, nose, throat, myocardil toxicity, urinary hesitancy, constipation with distension and flatus.
Lipids Test (lipid profile)
Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a sample of blood. Total cholesterol in blood is should be less than 200 mg/dL.
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