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the medical branch of science that deals with the study of the skin, its functions and diseases is:

a) anatomy
b) dermatology
c) histology
d) physiology
b) dermatology
the largest organ of the human body is the:

a) liver
b) lungs
c) skin
d) glands
c) skin
continued pressure on any part of the skin causes it to thicken and develop into a(n):

a) lesion
b) appendage
c) scar
d) callus
d) callus
the thinnest skin can be found on the:

a) eyelids
b) fingertips
c) lips
d) nose
a) eyelids
the outermost layer of skin that forms the protective covering of the body is the:

a) subcutaneous
b) surface
c) epidermis
d) dermis 
c) epidermis
the epidermis layer of the skin is also known as the:

a) papillary layer
b) cuticle layer
c) subcutaneous layer
d) dermis layer
b) cuticle layer
the deepest layer of the epidermis, the basal cell layer, is also know as the:

a) stratum spinosum
b) stratum germinativum
c) stratum corneum
d) keratin dermis
b) stratum germinativum
the layer of skin that is composed of several layers of different-shaped cells and is responsible for the growth of the epidermis is the:

a) stratum germinativum
b) stratum granulosum
c) papillary layer
d) stratum lucidum
a) stratum germinativum
the clear, transparent layer just under the skin surface that consists of small cells through which light can pass is the:

a) stratum lucidum
b) stratum corneum
c) stratum spinosum
d) stratum granulosum
a) stratum lucidum
the layer that consists of cells that look like distinct granules and are pushed to the surface to replace cells that shed is the:

a) basal cell layer
b) stratum germinativum
c) stratum granulosum
d) stratum luciderm
c) stratum granulosum
the stratum germinativum is composed of several layers with special cells that produce a dark skin pigment called:

a) spiny
b) elongated
c) melanin
d) granules
c) melanin
the layer of skin that we see and is treated by the practicioner is the:

a) corneum
b) keratin
c) melanin
d) spinosum
a) corneum
a fiber protein that is the principal component of hair, skin and nails is:

a) appendages
b) melanocytes
c) keratin
d) melanin 
c) keratin
the underlying of inner layer of the skin also called the derma corium, cutis or true skin is the:

a) papillary
b) dermal
c) dermis
d) epidermis
c) dermis
the dermis layer is made up of two layers, which are the:

a) papillary and reticular
b) papillary and dermal
c) dermal and tactile
d) tactile and reticular
a) papillary and reticular
the deeper layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients is the:

a) papillary layer
b) subcutaneous layer
c) reticular layer
d) basal layer
c) reticular layer
the top of the papillary layer where it joins the epidermis is the:

a) dermis corpuscles
b) epidermal-dermal junction
c) epidermal-dermal connection
d) epidermis junction
b) epidermal-dermal junction
the fatty layer found below the dermis is the:

a) tactile
b) papillae
c) subcutaneous
d) papillary
c) subcutaneous
the muscle that causes goosebumps when a person is frightened or cold is the:

a) angled muscle
b) secretory muscle
c) absorption muscle
d) arrector pili muscle
d) arrector pili muscle
the layer of the dermis that houses the nerve endings that provide the body with the sense of touch is found in the:

a) secretory layer
b) papillary layer
c) dermal layer
d) reticular layer
b) papillary layer
the tiny granules of coloring matter deposited in cells that provide skin with its color are:

a) protein
b) lucid
c) melanin
d) matter
c) melanin
the melanin produced by the body that is red to yellow in color is:

a) granular melanin
b) pheomelanin
c) eumelanin
d) photovoltaic
b) pheomelanin
a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength is:

a) elastin
b) collagen
c) keratin
d) melanin
b) collagen
the fibrous protein that gives skin its flexibility and helps skin regain its shape after being expanded is:

a) proteins
b) collagen
c) elastin
d) membranes 
c) elastin
the two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances are:

a) sudoriferous and sebaceous glands
b) sebaceous and sweat glands
c) sudoriferous and blood glands
d) sebaceous and heat glands
a) sudoriferous and sebaceous glands
oil glands that are connected to hair follicles are also called:

a) sudoriferous glands
b) sebaceous glands
c) arrector glands
d) substance glands
b) sebaceous glands
when sebum hardens and the sebaceous duct becomes clogged, the pore impaction that is formed is a:

a) coil
b) lubricant
c) scar
d) comedone
d) comedone
retinoic acid, or Retin-A, is a prescription cream used to treat:

a) depression
b) acne
c) elastin
d) sunburns
b) acne
water is the number one ntrient of the body and composes what percentage of the body's weight?

a) 20 to 30 percent
b) 35 to 45 percent
c) 50 to 70 percent
d) 40 to 45 percent
c) 50 to 70 percent
the principal functions of the skin are protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion and:

a) absorption and cooling
b) presentation and regulation
c) perspiration and absorption
d) secretion and absorption
d) secretion and absorption
the UV rays of the sun reach the skin in two different forms, which are:

a) UVA and X-RAY rays
b) UVA and UVB rays
c) UBC and VBT rays
d) VBA and UVC rays
b) UVA and UVB rays
the rays of the sun that cause sunburns and tanning and are alos known as burning rays are:

a) AB rays
b) AC rays
c) UVB rays
d) UVT rays
c) UVB rays
the pigment in the skin that is designed to help protect the skin from the sun's UV rays is:

a) melanin
b) keratin
c) elastin
d) collagen
a) melanin
to be effective, sunscreen used as protection to filter out UVA and UVB rays should be rated as:

a) half spectrum
b) full or broad spectrum
c) precaution spectrum
d) nonspectrum
b) full or broad spectrum
distended capillaries caused by constant overdilation and weakening of the capillary walls are known as:

a) fissures
b) excoriation
c) telangiectasias
d) macula
c) telangiectasias
if a client has a skin disorder that is not recognized as a simple disorder, the client should be referred to a:

a) stylist
b) esthetician
c) physician
d)  technician
c) physician
marks on the skin that could indicate injury or damage that change the structure of tissues or organs are known as:

a) disorders
b) lesions
c) primary
d) hardness
b) lesions
a large primary lesion containing a watery fluid is a:

a) sac
b) freckle
c) bulla
d) papule
c) bulla
a spot or discoloration of the skin, neither raised nor sunken, is a:

a) pustule
b) bulla
c) lesion
d) macule
d) macule
a small circumscribed elevation of the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus is a:

a) secondary
b) papule
c) freckle
d) stain
b) papule
lesions of the skin are classified as primary, secondary and:

a) fissures
b) vesicles
c) temporary
d) tertiary
d) tertiary
an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells that varies in size, color and shape is a:

a) tumor
b) pustule
c) scale
d) tubercle
a) tumor
cracks in the skin that penetrate the dermis layer, such as chapped hands or lips are:

a) tissues
b) fissures
c) tumors
d) tubercles
b) fissures
lesions of the skin that develop in the later stages of a disease are classified as:

a) secondary skin lesions
b) primary skin lesions
c) contagious skin lesions
d) excessive lesions
a) secondary skin lesions
an inflamed pimple containing pus is a:

a) papilla
b) pustule
c) wheal
d) vesicle
b) pustule
dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing is a:

a) crust
b) macule
c) tubercle
d) vesicle 
a) crust
a thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue is known as a:

a) stain
b) cyst
c) keloid
d) bulla
c) keloid
an excessive thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily, is known as a:

a) scale
b) scar
c) vesicle
d) papule
a) scale
a hair follicle filled with excessive keratin and sebum forms a:

a) comedo
b) cicatrix
c) bulla
d) nodule
a) comedo
benign, keratin-filled cysts found under the epidermis that resemble small sesame seeds are:

a) cysts
b) nodules
c) milia
d) keloids
c) milia
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