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the study of ethics
forces us to use reason and logic to answer difficult questions concerning life, death and everything in between
Medical Ethics mandates
that the welfare and confidentiality of the pt. must be the chief concern
Ethics always involves
formal consideration of the interests of others in deciding how to act or behave
Rights-based Ethics
a. Advantages: proctects the person from injury; consistent with rights to freedom and privacy b. Disadvantages: can imply individualistic selfish behavior that could result in anarchy behavior
Duty-based Ethics
a. Advantages: people are not treated as a means to an end. Thete is a mandate for respect and impartiality b. Disadvantages: difficult to identify who should determine what the rules and principles of moral behavior should be
Virtue-based Ethics
a. Advantages: behavior includes perseverance, courage, integrity, compassion, etc. b. Disadvantages: there is a concern that persons can be taken advantage of if they become too complacent or trusting
laws that affect the medical profession ( 3 things )
a. often overlap with ethics b. have a binding force d. are determined by a govermental authority
Modern laws
are not used as a type of yardstick for group behavior
designed by the framers of the Constitution so that no one branch of goverment would have more power than another and so that each branch of goverment is scrutinized by other branches of goverment
Checks and balances
Sources of Law ( 4 )
a. constitutional b. statutory c. regulatory d. common
Private Laws or Civil Laws
a. tort b. contract c. property d. inheritance e. family f. corporatep
Something of value,
Purpose of Criminal Law
is to define socially intolerable conduct that is punishable by law
in the healthcare field, federal and state agencies have created a multitude of rules and regulations under whose authority
Congress or State Legislatures
The federal court system has jurisdiction when one of the following conditions is present
a. dispute relates to a federal law or the U.S. Constitution b. the U.S. government is one of the parties involved in the dispute c. different state\'s citizens are involved in the dispute and the case involves over $75,000 d. citizens of another country are involved in a dispute with a U.S. citizen and the case involves over $75,000 e. the actual dispute occurred in international waters
Standard of care refers to the care that
healthcare professionals in all specialities must practice
is the practical application of moral standards that concern benefiting the pt.
Applied Ethics
a field resulting from modern medical advances and research
a society where people have become excrssively inclined to sue healthcare practioners
rules or actions prescribed by an authority such as the federal goverment and the court system that have a binding legal force
established in all 50 states by statute, apply specifically to the way medicine is practiced in a particular state
Medical Practice Acts
the decision of the case acts as a model for any future cases in which the facts are the same
branch of philosophy related to morals, moral principles and moral judgement
a person lacking or indifferent to moral standards is said to be
concerns questions specifically related to the practice of medicine
Medical Ethics
an ethical theory based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number
justifies the means of achieving a goal
Cost/Benefit Analysis
an ethical theory based on the premise that there are moral entitlements by virtue of being human. i.e. the right to healthcare, the right to free speech
Rights-based Ethics
ethics that focuses on performing one\'s duty to various people and institutions
Duty-based Ethics
ethics based on the premise that there is an acquired human quality that tends to enable us to achieve those goods or rewards that are the result of virtuous practices
Virtue-based Ethics
the action of helping others and performing actions that would result in benefit to another person
loyalty and faithfullness to others
the sacredness of human life
Sanctity of life
a respect for those whose opinions, practices, race, religion and nationality differ from our own
unwavering adherence to one\'s principle
the ability to understand the feelings of others without actually experiencing their pain or distress
feeling sorry for or pitying someone else
the ability to have a gentle, caring attitude toward pt.s and fellow employees
the entitlement of employees of the goverment and public companies to havd certain procedures followed when they believe their rights are in jeopardy
Due Process
a theory that extends equal pay requirements to all persons who are doing equal work
Comparable Worth ( Pay Equity )
Three-Step Ethics Model
a. Is it legal b. Is it balanced c. How does it make me feel
people have the right to make decisions about their own life
The Principle of Autonomy
the principle of doing good, means that we must not harm pt.s while we are trying to help them
The Principle of Beneficence
principle which is taken from the latin maxim \" Primum non nocere\" which means \" First, do no harm\"
The Principle of Nonmaleficence
gather and evaluate info about the services provided as well as the results achieved, and compare this info with an accepted standard. Consist of formal, systamatic evaluations of overall pt. care
Quality Assurance ( QA )
specialists in the field of bioethics, give thought to ethical concerns that often examine the more abstract dimensions of ethical issues and dilemmas
standards of professional behavoir for that Dr.s practice in the relationship or conduct with other Dr.s
Medical Ettiquette
rule out diagnosis
decision based on emotion
Gut Feeling
a problem that occurs when using a duty-based approach to ethics is
the conflicting opinions regarding what our responsibility is
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