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What is the prime mover in shoulder abduction?
deltoids
What are the prime movers in hip flexion?
illiopsoas (iliacus, psoas major)
What are the prime movers in hip extension?
biceps femoris, gluteus maximus
What are the prime movers in hip abduction?
TFL, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis
What are the prime movers in hip adduction?
Adductors (brevis, longus, magnus), pectineus, gracilis
The explanation for how muscles produce force (or, usually, shorten). Thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere.
sliding filament theory
A thick muscle on each side of the neck, the action of which assists in bending the head and neck forward and sideways.
sternocleidomastoid
Which puts more stress on the joint, closed or open chain exercises?
open
Activity in which an extremity can move in any direction, because it is not attached at the end. For example, if you raise one of your feet off the ground, you can move that leg in any direction or sequence of movements.
open-chain exercise
Activity that fixes the distal end of the extremity either to the ground or to a device that has a predetermined motion. When you keep your feet on the ground while you bend or straighten one joint, the other joints move in a predictable, set manner.
close-chain exercise
Basic unit of contraction in the muscle fiber
sarcomere
sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.
muscle spindle
Which contains more mitochondria, slow-twitch or fast-twitch muscle fibers?
slow-twitch
What are the four factors that limit flexibility?
1. elastic limits of ligaments and tendons crossing the joint 2. elasticity of muscle itself 3. bone and joint structure 4. the skin
What area of the body is innervated by the cervical plexus (C1-C4)?
head, neck, upper chest, shoulders
What area of the body is innervated by the brachial plexus (C5-T1)?
shoulders down to the fingertips
What area of the body is innervated by the lumbar plexus (L1-L4)?
abdomen, groin, genitalia, antero-lateral aspect of thigh
What area of the body is innervated by the sacral plexus (L5-S4)?
large posterior muscles of the thigh, lower leg, ankle, foot
What are the major characteristics of synovial joints?
Have a joint capsule or cavity between the bones that form them and a variety of movement can occur (ex: knee, elbow, hip).
What are the major characteristics of cartilaginous joints?
Have no joint cavity and are held together by cartilage. Little or no movement occurs (ex: where ribs connect to sternum, fibrocartilage b/w vertebrae).
What are the major characteristics of fibrous joints?
Have no joint capsule and are held tightly together by fibrous cartilage. Very little movement occurs (sutures b/w bones of skull, joint b/w distal tibia-fibula and radius-ulna)
What are the four components of a comprehensive exercise assessment?
1. cardiorespiratory efficiency 2. muscular strength and endurance 3. muscle and joint flexibility 4. body composition
Average resting heart rate for men is __ beats per minute.
70
Average resting heart rate for women is __ beats per minute.
75
During a submaximal exercise test, do not allow the exercising heart rate to exceed __ percent of heart rate reserve or maximal oxygen uptake.
85
To convert a 10 repetition-max weightload to a 1-repetition-max estimation, divide the weight by ___.
0.75
Does not factor in the weight of the individual
absolute maximum oxygen uptake
Factors in the weight of the individual
relative maximum oxygen uptake
Which indicates a higher health risk, upper or lower body obesity?
upper
The greatest amount of force that muscles can produce in a single maximal effort.
muscular strength
The muscle\\\'s ability to exert a submaximal force either repeatedly or statically over time.
muscular endurance
Low-weight, high rep muscular endurance tests are most appropriate for whom?
less fit clients/clients that have health-related exercise-strength goals
What are three guidelines that ensure a client\\\'s heart rate doesn\\\'t exceed 150 to 155 bpm during a ross submaximal treadmill test?
1. don\\\'t go to stage II if HR exceeds 140 at stage 1 (this person is unfit) 2. stages IV and V should only be used with clients under age 50 3. Never go to the next stage if the HR exceeds 145 bpm
What are the skinfold sites for men?
chest, abdomen, thigh
What are the skinfold sites for women?
triceps, suprailium, thigh
What is the location of the chest skinfold?
diagonal skinfold taken midway on the anterior axillary line (crease of the underarm and the nipple)
What is the location of the abdomen skinfold?
vertical skinfold taken 1 inch lateral to the umbilicus
What is the location of the thigh skinfold?
vertical skinfold taken midway between the hip and knee joints on the front of the thigh
What is the location of the tricep skinfold?
vertical fold on the back of the upper arm taken halfway between the acromial (shoulder) and olecranon (elbow) processes
What is the location of the suprailium skinfold?
diagonal fold taken at, or just anterior to, the crest of the ilium
What are the advantages to the bench-press test?
dynamic movement that can be improved over time to show progress; easy to set up and administer
What are the disadvantages to the bench-press test?
uses fixed weight, which places lighter clients at a disadvantage
What are the advantages to the isometric strength test?
any strength test that involves movement will either underestimate or overestimate maximal force output due to internal friction; easy to administer
What are the advantages to the trunk flexion test?
easy to administer and repeat
What are the advantages of hydrostatic weighing?
most accurate for most clients, especially when coupled with a residual volume measurement
What are the disadvantages of hydrostatic weighing?
can be expensive and time consuming; lack of availability; may be inaccurate with clients uncomfortable with submersion in water
What are the disadvantages to the trunk flexion test?
may cause muscle strain if performed too vigorously or when the client is not properly warmed up
What are the disadvantages to the isometric strength test?
most workouts will focus on dynamic strength training so using this test for the purpose of establishing a baseline or to track progress may not be suitable
What are the implications of a shoulder adductor flexibility test where the arms do not lie flat?
client has shortness in pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi area
What are the implications of a trunk flexion test in which a 28 yr old female has flexion of 15 inches with a trunk flexion evaluation of poor.
client has below average trunk flexibility with severe low back and hamstring inflexibility
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