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\"\"\"Let one hundred flowers bloom\"\"\"
\"Chairman Mao Zedong\'s \"\"Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend\"\". This slogan was used during the period of approximately six weeks in the summer of 1957 when the Chinese intelligentsia were invited to criticize the political system then obtaining in Communist China.
It is sometimes suggested that the initiative was a deliberate attempt to flush out dissidents by encouraging them to show themselves as critical of the regime. Whether or not it was a deliberate trap isn\'t clear but it is the case that many of those who put forward views that were unwelcome to Mao were executed.\"
absolute majority
more than 50% of all votes cast
accountability
the concept that government officials are responsible to and serve at the pleasure of constituents or elected officials (and that they may be removed from office by those electors or officials)
adjudicate
to resolve a matter in dispute; when backed up by the authority of government the decision can be enforced
adjudication
the legal process of deciding an issue through the courts
Afghanistan and Bhutan
British buffer states for India
Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (Marrakesh Agreement)
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 following the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations to encompass the existing General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in an institutional framework, enhance its provisions and provide for a binding dispute resolution mechanism. The WTO, with approximately 150 members, is the principal multilateral forum for addressing international trade issues.
agricultural sector
that part of a country\'s economy that is involved in the production of farm products
airspace
The space above a state that is considered its territory, in contrast to outer space, which is considered international territory.
alliance cohesion
the ease with which the members hold together an alliance; tends to be high when national interests converge & when cooperation among allies become institutionalized
Alliance for Progress
1961 - International development program. Initiated by the U.S. and joined by 22 Latin American countries in 1961, it aimed to strengthen democratic government and promote social and economic reforms in Latin America. The program, which provided loans and aid from the U.S. and the international financial community, built some schools and hospitals, but by the early 1970s it was widely viewed as a failure. Significant land reform was not achieved, population growth outstripped gains in health and welfare, and the U.S. willingness to support military dictators to prevent communism from gaining a foothold sowed distrust and undermined the reforms the Alliance was intended to promote.
Ambalat
Indonesia & Malaysia dispute this oil-rich sea area
America First
Founded in 1939 after Germany’s invasion of Poland, America First was an isolationist group that opposed U.S. involvement in World War II. Many prominent Americans were members, including aviator Charles Lindbergh. At its peak, America First had 800,000 members. The organization disbanded shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
American Convention on Human Rights
The American Convention on Human Rights, which entered into force in 1978, defines the human rights that the ratifying states of the Western Hemisphere have agreed to foster through the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), an autonomous organ of the Organization of American States (OAS) headquartered in Washington, D.C. The IACHR meets frequently, considers cases brought before it and gives priority to stimulating public awareness in such areas as judicial independence, activities of irregular armed groups and the human rights of minors, women and indigenous peoples. The Convention also established the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, located in San Jose, Costa Rica.
Amnesty International
An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
anarchy
In IR theory, the term implies not complete chaos but a lack of a central government that can enforce rules.
Andrei Gromyko
Soviet foreign minister (1957–85) and president (1985–88) of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Though never strongly identified with any political faction, he served dependably as a skilled emissary and spokesman. He was ambassador to the U.S. (1943–46), Soviet representative to the UN Security Council (1946–48), and ambassador to Britain (1952–53). In 1957 he began his long tenure as foreign minister and became renowned for his negotiating skills. In 1985 he was promoted to the presidency, with great prestige but little power, after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power.
Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides
1906: Joint agreement between England and France for cooperative government in the Pacific
Annexation of Baltic States
\"1940 - The direct Soviet aggression against the Baltic countries occurred on 14-17 June 1940 when the world’s attention was focused on the military actions in Western Europe where Paris fell to the Germans on 14 June. Accusing Estonia of forming a conspiracy together with Latvia and Lithuania against the Soviet Union, the latter presented an ultimatum, demanding new concessions which included allowing more troops to enter the three countries. In the conditions of international isolation, the governments surrendered without offering any military resistance, and within a few days, the countries were invaded and occupied by several hundred thousand soldiers of the Red Army. A few days later days, led by Stalin’s close associates, the local communist supporters and those brought in from Russia, formally forced the Baltic governments to resign and proclaimed new \"\"people\'s governments\"\" in the three occupied countries.\"
Are the majority of muslims sunni or shiite?
About 90% are sunni. Shiites live mainly in Iran and Iraq.
arms race
reciprocal process in which two or more states build up military capabilities in response to each other
attentive public
the minority of the population that stays informed about international issues
Austrian State Treaty
1955 - 1955 in Vienna at the Schloss Belvedere among the Allied occupying powers: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union, and the Austrian government and officially came into force on July 27, 1955.
autarchy
complete self-sufficiency
authoritarianism
a political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public.
autocracy
a system of governance in which a small group has absolute power
autonomy
the degree to which a state can implement policies independent of the populace or the amount of sovereignty a nation-state can exercise in the global environment
Azerbaijan & Armenia
Azerbaijan holds Naxcivan in Armenia and Armenia holds Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan
Bahrain vs. Qatar
Dispute over the Hawar Islands
balance of power
The general concept of one or more states’ power being used to balance that of another state or group of states. The term can refer to (1) any ratio of power capabilities between states or alliances, (2) a relatively equal ratio, or (3) the process by which counterbalancing coalitions have repeatedly formed to prevent one state from conquering an entire region.
balance of trade
comparison between the value of exports and the value of imports for a nation-state; usually figured by subtracting the value of imports from the value of exports (positive means that exports were worth more than imports; negative means that the value of imports exceeded the value of exports)
Balfour Declaration
A formal statement of policy by the British government in 1917 stating, among other things, that the Jewish plans for a national home for their people within Palestine‎ was supported by the Britain. So -- Jews thought they had the right to live there, Palestinians were already there and thought they had the right to stay. Conflict starts here.
Balkan independence
Croatia first, then Serbia. Bosnia in 1992 from Yugoslavia. Kosovo last.
bandwagoning
smaller states join forces with larger states to gain power
Battle of Britain
June 1940–April 1941: Series of intense raids directed against Britain by the German air force in World War II. The air attacks, intended to prepare the way for a German invasion, were directed against British ports and RAF bases. In September 1940 the attacks turned to London and other cities in a “blitz” of bombings for 57 consecutive nights, which was followed by intermittent raids until April 1941. The RAF was outnumbered but succeeded in blocking the German air force through superior tactics, advanced air defenses, and the penetration of German secret codes.
Belleau Wood
A forested area of northern France. In June 1918, it was the site of a hard-fought and bloody American victory over the Germans. This battle was signicant in that it stopped a German advance toward Paris
Berlin Blockade
1948-1949 – Instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift, a massive effort to supply the 2 million West Berliners with food and fuel for heating began in June, 1948, and lasted until Sept., 1949, although the Russians lifted the blockade in May of that year. During the around-the-clock airlift some 277,000 flights were made delivering an average of 8,000 tons of supplies daily.
bicameral
describing a legislative body with two houses
Biological Weapons Convention
Entered into force in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) had 151 member states in 2006.  It provides that members of the Convention should “never in any circumstances…develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain…Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.”  The Convention also imparts responsibilities on member nations to destroy all such weapons and their means of delivery.
Bipolarity
A balance of power system involving two power centers. Example: The US and The Soviet Union post WWII
blue helmets
The UN peacekeeping forces, so called because they wear helmets or berets in the UN color, blue, with UN insignia.
Border distinctions
Delimited borders are described; demarcated borders are surveyed and marked.
Bretton Woods Agreement
1944 agreement made in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, which helped to establish a fixed exchange rate in terms of gold for major currencies. The International Monetary Fund was also established at this time.
Britain, China, Iran
Which of the states we have studied are unitary governments.
Bryan resigns
June 9, 1915 – Believing the strong language in Wilson’s note to Germany after the sinking of the British ship Lusitania would lead the U.S. into an unnecessary war; Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigned his post.
budgetary deficit
the result of government spending in any one fiscal year exceeding the government revenue in that year (national debt is the total of yearly deficits)
burden sharing
The distribution of the costs of an alliance among members; the term also refers to the conflicts that may arise over such distribution.
bureaucracy
a hierarchically structured organization charged with carrying out the policies determined by those with political authority
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