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Observable facial experessions of a feeling or emotion. Patients may be described as having a flat or blunt affect.
"a mental disorder characterized by an irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home, or venturing into the open; often associated with panic attacks."  commonly referred to as fear of the marketplace.
Inability to recognize the import of sensory impressions despite being able to recognize the elemental sensation of he stimulus.  Language deficits must be absent for this diagnosis.  Various agnosias correspond to several senses and may be distinguished as auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual.  Specific sensory agnosias can occur when the connections are disrupted between the primary cortical receptor region for a stimulus and the memory of prior stimuli.  for example, the inability to recognize familiar objects by sight or touch.
A step-by-step approach to treatment based upon controlled clinical trials.
Absence of speech becaue of mental illness.
Ambiguous hand preference
Absence of a dominant hand preference; the switching of hands within the same activity.
Lacking in motivation.
A structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in the emotions of aggression and fear.
A pain medication.
Localized abnormal dilatation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery, or in the heart, resulting in the formation of a sac.  Usual causes are the weakness of the vessel wall, resulting from atherosclerosis, or a congenital defect.  However, any injury to the middle  or muscular layer of the arterial wall can predispose the stretching of the vessel wall.
Reduced ability or inability to experience pleasure.
Inability to name objects.
Anterograde amnesia
The inability to learn new long-term declarative information.
Anticholinergic side effects
Most commonly dry mouth or constipation
Antipsychotic medications
Medications designed to reduce positive and negative symptoms.
""apprehension of danger, and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.
A sedative or mild tranquilizer used to treat anxiety or alcohol withdrawl.
An absence or suppression of emotion, feeling or concern.
Difficulty with expressive and/or receptive language.
Loss of skilled purposeful movement that cannot be attributed either to deficits in primary motor skills or problems in comprehension.  It can affect ideation and concept formation as well as programming and planning of movement.
Referring both to an artery and a vein.  AVM
Asperger's Disease
A neuorbiologic disorder of unknown etiology in which cognitive and communication skills develop normally during the first few years of life.  However, social impairment is evident, repetitive and stereotypical behaviors are observed, and communication, though not delayed, is marked by unusual topics of interest and rigidity.
Pathological inhalation of food or mucusinto the respiratory tract.
Associated reactions
Involuntary movements or reflexive increases in tone on the affected side of individuals with hemiplegia.  These movements replicate synergy patterns and often appear when the individual is trying new or stressful activities, e.g., a resisted grasp by the noninvolved hand causes a grasp reaction in the involved hand.
Inability to recognize objects by touch (also called tactile agnosia)
A hand-flapping tremor.
Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement.  In posterior column damage of the spinal cord, incoordination and a loss of proprioception is caused by misjudgment of limb position with balance problems.  Cerebellar ataxia produces a reeling, wide-based gait.
An abnormal mass of fatty or lipid material with a fibrous covering, which forms a discrete raised plaque within the inner layer (intima) of an artery.
A widespread form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of plaques (atheromas) containing cholesterol andother lkipid material are formed within the inner layer (intima) of large and medium sized arteries.
Athetoid (dyskinetic)
Resembling athetosis or repetitive involuntary, slow, sinuous, writhing movements.  Classification of cerebral palsy in which involuntary purposeless movement occurs when an individual attempts purposeful motion.  The abnormal movements may not only occur in the limb being moved but also involve an "overflow" of activity to all the other limbs with an exaggeration of reflexes.
Auditory Processing
The process of the brain recognizing and interpreting sounds in the environment.  This process is responsible for the comprehension of language.
Autistic Disorder
A neurobiologic disorder with an unknown etiology, characterized by significant delay or deviation in social interaction, communication, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors.
Autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia)
An uninhibited and exaggerated relex of the autonomic nervous system to stimulation.
B-amyloid plaques
Insoluble shards of B-amyloid that stick to dead and dying neurons.
Babinski's reflex
Dorsiflexion (extension) of the great toe and outspreading of the outer toes when the sole of the food is stroked.
Slowness of all voluntary movement and speech.
Brain attack
Synonym for stroke, or cerebrovascular accident.
A protein found in cow's milk.
Extreme psychomotor agitation or retardation.
Passage of a catheter into a body channel or cavity, expecially introduction of a catheter via the urethra into the urinary bladder.
Cauda equina
The collection of dorsal and ventral nerve roots descending from the lower spinal cord and occupying the vertebral canal below the cord at the L1 region.
A region of the brain that is found at the rear of the head and is above the brainstem.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke, brain attack)
Disorder of the blood vessels serving the brain, resulting in disruption of blood flow to parts of the brain leading to neuronal death.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
A rare neurobiologic disorder that develops in children who had appeared completely normal during their first few years of life.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A term that includes chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and bronchiectasis.
The use of pantomime, nonverbal communication, or word substitution to avoid revealing an inability to say or remember a word.
Alternate involuntary muscular contraction and relaxation in rapid succession.
Cogwheel rigidity
Stiff movement in one direction in small evenly spaced segments.
Collateral circulation
Secondary circulation that continues to an area of the brain following obstruction of a primary blood vessel and may prevent major ischemia.
A nonsleep loss of consciousness associated with unresponsiveness to touch, pain, sound, or movement that lasts for an extendeed period.
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