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Characteristics of enzymes.
-Most are globular that act as catalysts. -Holoenzymes consist of an apoenzymeand a cofactor. -Enzymes are chemically speific. -End in -ase. -Lowers the activation energy.
Cofactor
A molecule, usually an ion, that binds to a protein to activate it.
What enzymes do.
-Accelerate the reaction rate, but doesn't change the equilibria. -Stress substrates into changing into reactants. -Not used up in the reaction. -Have a(n) active sites where substrates bind. -Have other allosteric sites where modifiers can bind. -Have a finite speed (Vmax) that they operate at.
Entropy
Measurement of the degree of disorder in a system. The higher the entropy, the higher the disorder.
Gibbs Free Energy
The amount of energy in a system that can be extracted to do work.
Free energy change
The difference in free energy between reactant and product molecules in a chemical reaction. -G = exergonic +G = endergonic
Exergonic
High energy state, proceeds to lower energy. Therefore is spontaneous.
Endergonic
Lower energy state, must be coupled with -G reaction to go. Not spontaneous.
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