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social class
the social structural hierarchical position groups hold relative to the economic social political and cultural resources of society.
global stratification
the systematic inequalities between and among different groups within nations that result from the differences in wealth power and prestige of different societies relative to their position in the international economy
modernization theory
a view of globalization in which global development is a worldwide process affecting nearly all societies that have been touched by technological change.
4 stages of economic growth
Traditional stage takeoff to economic growth drive to technological maturity high mass consumption.
dependency theory
The global theory maintaining that industrialized nations hold less industrialized nations in a dependent
socioeconomic status (SES)
a measure of class standing typically indicated by income occupational prestige and educational attainment.
life chances
opportunities we have for achieving economic prosperity
social mobility
persons movement from one class to another class (up or down)
metiocracy
system in which ones status is based on merit or accomplishments not other social characteristics
habitus
long lasting dispositions which are composed of our tastes and perceptions
ethnicity
social category of people who share a common culture (ex. Irish
race
group treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics that are socially constructed as relevant some of which are physical
racialization
process by which some trait or category takes on what society perceives to be racial characteristics
thomas theorem
If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences.
sex
physical difference of male and female due to biology
gender
social system of differentiation between women and men (also femininity and masculinity
hegemonic masculinity
ideal type of masculinity in society that dominates over other types
glass ceiling
Invisible barrier above which women cannot rise on the career ladder
glass escalator
Men in traditional women\\\'s jobs are pushed up the career ladder
social institution
an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
3 components of sexuality
desire behavior and identity
intersectionality
an approach that emphasizes how the intersection of various social categories results in different experiences of social stratification
mass media
medium of communication designed to reach many people
stereotype
an oversimplified set of beliefs about the members of a social group or social stratum that is used to categorize individuals of that group
prejudice
the negative evaluation of a social group and individuals within that group based upon conceptions about that social group that are held despite facts that contradict it
discrimination
overt negative and unequal treatment of the members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in that group or stratum.
hypodermic needle theory
aka magic bullet theory; Audience is passive recipient of media message who accepts its content directly to brain (like needle/bullet)
active audience theory
audience actively interprets media in various ways. emphasis on viewer over message; people accept media if it satisfies their needs
reception theory
Combines elements of passive and active audience theories; Messages are loaded into media product but audience may receive it in various ways
social stratification
a relatively fixed hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources power and perceived social worth; a system of structured social inequality
social class
usually related to job and education how much money you have
world system theory
includes 3 economic zones: 1 periphery-very poor 2. semi periphery- china make some labor 3. core-rich
hour glass economy
Middle class is the smallest meaning it is harder to get in caused by lack of education
colorblind racism
idea where people don\\\'t see race or color. Is problematic because of society structure (macro)
sociological imagination
seeing the bigger picture understanding how things influence us
theory abstract or general
interpretation that can be used to explain a wide variety of situations
Sociological Perspectiveseeing
the general in the particular
Peter Berger\\\'s General/Particular
Sociologists look for general patterns in behavior of particular people
Berger\\\'s Strange/Familiar
Sociological perspective reveals initially strange idea that society shapes what we think and do
Durkheim\\\'s research on suicide
Social integration affects suicide rates; Freedom loosens social ties
Sociological Imagination - Who
C. Wright Mills
Sociological Imagination - Concept
Society not personal failings is cause of social problems
Structural-Functional Sociological Theory
Macro-level Education Gov\\\'t Family Religion Health Manifest/Latent Functions
Social-Conflict Sociological Theory
Macro-level Social inequality creates conflict Age Class Race Sex
Symbolic-Interaction Sociological Theory
Micro-level Build personality from social experience
Scientific Sociology
The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
Sociological Concept & Examples
Mental construct that represents some part of the world in simplified form. \\\"Society\\\" \\\"The Family\\\" \\\"The Economy\\\"
Sociological Variable & Examples
Concept whose value changes from case to case. \\\"Price\\\" \\\"Upper-class\\\" \\\"Middle-class\\\"
Operationalization
Specifying exactly what is to be measure before assigning a value to a variable
10 Steps in Sociological Investigation
Select and define topic review literature develop key questions assess requirements for study consider ethical issues select research method collect data interpret findings state conclusions publish findings
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