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the process of permanently altering the natural wave pattern of hair is described as:

a) chemical hair softening
b) chemical texture services
c) natural hair services
d) alternative texture services
b) chemical texture services
the tough exterior layer of the hair structure is called the:

a) cortex
b) strand
c) cuticle
d) medulla
c) cuticle
to change the natural wave pattern of hair, the side bond of what layer of hair must be broken?

a) side
b) medulla
c) cortex
d) cuticle
c) cortex
another term that is used to describe the medulla of the hair structure is the:

a) stretch
b) effective
c) smooth
d) core
d) core
the term used to measure the hydrogen ions in a solution that determine its alkalinity or acidity is:

a) possible hydrogen
b) positive hydrogen
c) potential hydrogen
d) peptide ions
c) potential hydrogen
the range of numbers used in the pH scale is:

a) 0 to 5
b) 0 to 7
c) 0 to 10
d) 0 to 14
d) 0 to 14
chemical hair texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair in order to:

a) expand the harden the shaft
b) harden and close the shaft
c) swell and set the shaft
d) soften and swell the shaft
d) soften and swell the shaft
in the restructuring process, coarse, resistant hair with a strong compact cuticle requires a chemical solution that is:

a) slightly alkaline
b) mildly acidic
c) strongly acidic
d) highly alkaline
d) highly alkaline
chains that are formed by peptide bonds that are linked together are:

a) polypeptide
b) amino
c) keratin
d) temporary
a) polypeptide
long, coiled, polypeptide chains that make up approximately 97 percent of the hairs structure are:

a) keratin proteins
b) amino proteins
c) nitrogen bonds
d) resistant bonds
a) keratin proteins
the cortex layer of the hair structure is responsible for the hairs:

a) strength and elasticity
b) length and strength
c) porosity and elasticity
d) elasticity and texture
a) strength and elasticity
a correct permanent wave service alters only what bonds?

a) keratin bonds
b) side bonds
c) large bonds
d) peptide bonds
b) side bonds
the building blocks of proteins are:

a) polypeptide chains
b) chemical acids
c) amino acids
d) peptide acids
c) amino acids
chemical based side bonds that are formed when two sulfur-type chains are joined together are:

a) disulfide bonds
b) peptide bonds
c) keratin bonds
d) amino acids
a) disulfide bonds
weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges are:

a) sodium bonds
b) sulfur bonds
c) disulfide bonds
d) salt bonds
d) salt bonds
hydrogen bonds are easily broken by water or heat and are re-formed when the hair is:

a)stretched
b) dried
c) softened
d) styled
c) dried
hair coloring products that contain metallic salts are not compatible with:

a) conditioning treatments
b) neutralizers
c) color rines
d) permanent waving
d) permanent waving
chemical services should not be performed if the scalp analysis shows any signs of:

a) porosity
b) abrasions
c) disorders
d) tightness
b) abrasions
the term used to describe the diameter of a single strand of hair is:

a) elasticity
b) porosity
c) density
d) texture
d) texture
the key to ensuring complete penetration of permanent wave solution on coarse hair is:

a) less processing time
b) saturation of the scalp
c) saturation of the cortex
d) fast processing lotions
c) saturation of the cortex
chemical services performed on overly porous hair require solutions that are:

a) high pH
b) alkaline
c) diluted
d) low pH
d) low pH
more than any other single factor, what determines the ability of the hair to hold a curl?

a) porosity
b) absorption
c) elasticity
d) density
c) elasticity
in permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the:

a) rod size
b) wrapping method
c) solution
d) stabilizer
a) rod size
in permanent waving, the shape and type of curl are determined by the shape and type of rod and the:

a) long rods
b) hair length
c) sectioning
d) wrapping method
d) wrapping method
rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area are:

a) convex rods
b) straight rods
c) conventional rods
d) spiral rods
b) straight rods
permanent wave rods that produce a tighter curl in the center and looser curl on either side of the strand are:

a) bender rods
b) concave rods
c) straight rods
d) short rods
b) concave rods
the wrapping technique that provides the most control over hair ends and keeps them evenly distributed over the entire length of the rods is a:

a) single flat wrap
b) bookend wrap
c) double flat wrap
d) placed wrap
c) double flat wrap
the wrap that is used on endpaper folded over the hair ends like an envelope is a(n):

a) double flat wrap
b) bookend wrap
c) single flat wrap
d) end wrap
b) bookend wrap
all perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into:

a) subsections
b) base sections
c) parts
d) panels
d) panels
in permanent waving, panels of hair are divided into smaller subsections called:

a) rod sections
b) base sections
c) outer sections
d) placementsĀ 
b) base sections
the angle at which a permanent wave rod is positioned on the head is referred to as:

a) wrapping technique
b) rod direction
c) diagonal technique
d) base direction
d) base direction
caution should be used with on-base rod placement to avoid aditional:

a) sectioning of hair
b) stress and tension on hair
c) increased volume
d) curl patterns
b) stress and tension on hair
the two methods of wrapping the hair around a perm rod are:

a) flat and spiral
b) croquignole and even
c) spiral and perpendicular
d) croquignole and spiral
d) croquignole and spiral
in the croquignole method of wrapping, the hair is wound from:

a) scalp to ends
b) longest to shortest
c) ends to scalp
d) shortest to longest
c) ends to scalp
once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called:

a) rearranging
b) normalization
c) reduction
d) alkaline
c) reduction
in permanent waving, the reduction reaction is due to the addition of:

a) hydrogen
b) oxygen
c) salt
d) carbon
a) hydrogen
the most common reducing agents used are:

a) ammonia water
b) hydrogen peroxide
c) thioglycolic acids
d) hydrogen acidsĀ 
c) thioglycolic acids
the main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanent waves is:

a) ammonium thioglycolate
b) hydrogen thioglycolate
c) alkaline acids
d) glyceryl monothioglycolate
a) ammonium thioglycolate
most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between:

a) 4.5 and 5.5
b) 6 and 7
c) 9 and 9.6
d) 10 and 11
c) 9 and 9.6
exothermic waves create a chemical reaction that heatts the solution and speeds up:

a) processing
b) conditioning
c) neutralizing
d) formulation
a) processing
an acid with a low pH that is the primary reducing agent in acid waves is:

a) glyceryl monothioglycolate
b) ammonium thioglycolic
c) sodium hydroxide
d) sodium hydrochloride
a) glyceryl monothioglycolate
most acid waves have a pH value between:

a) 5.5 and 6.5
b) 7.8 and 8.2
c) 9 and 10
d) 10.1 and 10.5
b) 7.8 and 8.2
all acid waves have three components consisting of the waving lotion, neutralizer and:

a) conditioner
b) prewrap
c) stabilizer
d) activator
d) activator
waves that are activated from an outside heat source are considered:

a) stabilized
b) endothermic
c) exothermic
d) acid waves
b) endothermic
the most common reducing agents used in thio-free waves are mercaptamine or:

a) oxygen
b) cysteamine
c) ammonia
d) lanthionization
b) cysteamine
hair that has too many disulfide bonds broken and will not hold a firm curl is considered:

a) underprocessed
b) overprocessed
c) underneutralized
d) tinted
b) overprocessed
the process of stopping the action of permanent waves and hardening the hair into its new form is:

a) sectioning
b) rinsing
c) neutralization
d) normalization
c) neutralization
two important functions performed during the neutralization process are:

a) deactivates hydrogen and colors hair
b) deactivates water and curls hair
c) activates solution and normalizeds hair
d) deactivates solution and rebuilds disulfide bonds
d) deactivates solution and rebuilds disulfide bonds
before applying a neutralizer to the hair, it should be thoroughly:

a) shampooed
b) rinsed
c) conditioned
d) shaped
b) rinsed
in a basic perm wrap, all rods within a panel move in the same direction, and teh base control is:

a) on base
b) off base
c) bricklaying
d) half off base
d) half off base
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