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Distinguish between the biotic community and the abiotic environmental factors of an ecosystem.
Biotic community is the grouping of plants, animals, and microbes. Abiotic factors are the humidity, the climate, salinity, or type of soil.
Define species, population, association, and ecosystem.
  • Species: different kinds of plants, animals, and microbes in the community.
  • Population: a certain number of individuals that make up the interbreeding, reproducing group.
  • Association: plant community with a definite composition, uniform habitat characteristics, and uniform plant growth.
  • Ecosystem: a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit within an explicit space.
Compared with an ecosystem, what are an ecotone, landscape, biome, and biosphere?
  • Landscape: a group of interacting ecosystems.
  • Biomes: Similar ecosystems or landscapes grouped together
  • Biosphere: all the ecosystems
Identify and describe the biotic and abiotic components of the biome of the region in which you live.
The pigeons that live next door. The levee holds the water.
Name and describe the roles of the three main trophic categories that make up the biotic structure of every ecosystem.
  • Producers: plants
  • Consumers: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
  • Detritus feeders and decomposers: decomposers are primary detritus feeders
How do the terms organic and inorganic relate to the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem?
Organic refers to all thos materials that make up the bodies of living organisms. The key feature of organic materials and molecules is that they are constructed in large part from bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. Inorganic materials are materials and chemicals in air, water, rocks, and minerals.
Name and describe the attributes of the two trophic categories into which all organisms can be divided.
All organisms in the biosphere can be categorized as either autotrophs or heterotrophs, depending on whether they do or do not produce the organic compounds they need to survive and grow.
Give four categories of consumers in an ecosystem and the role that each plays.
  • Primary: herbivores
  • Secondary: carnivores
  • Parasites
  • Omnivore
State the similarities and differences between detritus feeders and decomposers, based on who they are, what they do, and how they do it.
Detritus feeders or detrivores feed on dead matter. Decompers are an important group of detrivores. Rotting is the result of the metabolic activity of fungi and bacteria. These organisms secrete digestive enzymes that break down wood, for example, into simple sugars that the fungi or bacteria then absorb for their nourishment.
Differentiate between the concepts of food chain, food web, and trophic levels.
An example of a food chain is a caterpillar eats an oak leaf, a warbler eats the caterpillar, and a hawk eats the warbler. Food web is a complex web of feeding relationships interconnected with food chains. Trophic levels are feeding levels. All producers belong to the first trophic level, all primary consumers belong to the second trophic level, organisms feeding on these herbivores belong to the third level.
Relate the concepts of the biomass pyramid to the fact that all heterotrophs depend upon autotrophic production.
The biomass pyramid is describes how the biomass of each trophic level decreases as it goes from the first level to the second and so on. If plants are gone then herbivores are gone too, which means we're going to be goners.
Describe three nonfeeding relationships that exist between organisms.
Mutualism: an example would be the relationship between insects and flowers.  Symbiotic: this is where two species cannot live w/o each other. Symbiotic relationships may include parasitic relationships as well as mutualistic relationships. 
How is competition among different species of an ecosystem reduced?
Even when different species occupy the same habitat, competition may be slight or nonexistent because each species has its own niche. An animals ecological niche refers to what the animal feeds on, where it feeds, when it feeds, where it finds shelter, how it responds to abiotic factors, and where it nests.
Differentiate between the two types of abiotic factors. What is the effect on a population when any abiotic factor shifts from the optimum to the limit of tolerance and beyond? What things in addition to abiotic factors may act as limiting factors?
Abiotic factors can be categorized as conditions or resources. Conditions are abiotic factors that vary in space and time but are not used up or made unavailable to other species. Resources are any factors - biotic or abiotic - that are consumer by organisms.
Describe how differences in climate cause the Earth to be partitioned into six major biomes.
Climate vary at different parts of the world and because of this  is why we have different biomes.
What are three situations that might cause microclimates to develop within an ecosystem?
different temperature and moisture within a biome is the microclimate of that location. Soil type and topography may also contribute to the diversity found in a biome. Relative acidity or alkalinity may also have an overriding effect on a plant or animal community.
What is significant about each of the following revolutions: Neolithic, Industrial, and Environmental?
Neolithic Revolution: the development of agriculture. Industrial Revolution: created the modern world, with its global commerce, factories, large cities, and significantly, pollution. Environmental Revolution: transitions necessary to move the human system from its present state to one that is sustainable.
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