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Activity
A task or collection of tasks that support the functions of an organization; for example; a user entering data into an IT system or traveling to visit customers.
Application
A deployed and operational IT system that supports business functions and services; for example; a payroll. Applications use data and are supported by multiple technology components but are distinct from the technology components that support the application.
Application Architecture
A description of the major logical grouping of capabilities that manage the data objects necessary to process the data and support the business.
Architecture
Architecture has two meanings depending upon its contextual usage: 1. A formal description of a system; or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation. 2. The structure of components; their inter-relationships; and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time. See also Chapter 2.
Architecture Continuum
A part of the Enterprise Continuum. A repository of architectural elements with increasing detail and specialization. This Continuum begins with foundational definitions such as reference models; core strategies; and basic building blocks. From there it spans to Industry Architectures and all the way to an organization's specific architecture. See also Chapter 6.
Architecture Building Block
A constituent of the architecture model that describes a single aspect of the overall model. See also Building Block and Chapter 11.
Architecture Development Method
The core of TOGAF. A step-by-step approach to develop and use an enterprise architecture. See also Chapter 2; Chapter 5; and Chapter 7.
Architecture Domain
The architectural area being considered. There are four architecture domains within TOGAF: Business; Data; Application; and Technology. BDAT A simple mnemonic to aid remembering the four architecture domains.
Architecture Framework
A foundational structure; or set of structures; which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures. It should contain a method for designing an information system in terms of a set of building blocks; and for showing how the building blocks fit together. It should contain a set of tools and provide a common vocabulary. It should also include a list of recommended standards and compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks. See also Chapter 2.
Architecture Principles
A qualitative statement of intent that should be met by the architecture. Has at least a supporting rationale and a measure of importance. See also Chapter 8.
Architecture View
See also VIEW and Chapter 10.
Architecture Vision
1. A high-level; aspirational view of the Target Architecture. 2. A phase in the ADM which delivers understanding and definition of the Architecture Vision. 3. A specific deliverable describing the Architecture Vision. See also Chapter 7 and Chapter 12.
Baseline
A specification that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon; that thereafter serves as the basis for further development or change and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures or a type of procedure such as configuration management.
Baseline Architecture
The existing defined system architecture before entering a cycle of architecture review and redesign.
Building Block
Represents a component of business; IT; or architectural capability that can be combined with other building blocks to deliver architectures and solutions. Building blocks can be defined at various levels of detail; depending on what stage of architecture development has been reached. For instance; at an early stage; a building block can simply consist of a name or an outline description. Later on; a building block may be decomposed into multiple supporting building blocks and may be accompanied by a full specification. Building blocks can relate to architectures� or solutions�. See also Section 3.3 and Chapter 11.
Business Architecture
The business strategy; governance; organization; and key business processes information; as well as the interaction between these concepts. See also Chapter 7.
Business Governance
Concerned with ensuring that the business processes and policies deliver the business outcomes and adhere to relevant business regulation.
Capability
An ability that an organization; person; or system possesses. Capabilities are typically expressed in general and high-level terms and typically require a combination of organization; people; processes; and technology to achieve; or example; marketing; customer contact; or outbound telemarketing.
Concerns
The key interests that are crucially important to the stakeholders in a system; and determine the acceptability of the system. Concerns may pertain to any aspect of the system's functioning; development; or operation; including considerations such as performance; reliability; security; distribution; and evolvability. See also Stakeholder and Chapter 10.
Constraint
An external factor that prevents an organization from pursuing particular approaches to meet its goals; for example; customer data is not harmonized within the organization; regionally or nationally; constraining the organization's ability to offer effective customer service.
Data Architecture
The structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources. See also Chapter 7.
Deliverable
An architectural work product that is contractually specified and in turn formally reviewed; agreed; and signed off by the stakeholders. Deliverables represent the output of projects and those deliverables that are in documentation form will typically be archived at completion of a project; or transitioned into an Architecture Repository as a reference model; standard; or snapshot of the Architecture Landscape at a point in time. See also Chapter 2 and Chapter 12.
Enterprise
The highest level of description of an organization and typically covers all missions and functions. An enterprise will often span multiple organizations.
Enterprise Continuum
A categorization mechanism useful for classifying architecture and solution artifacts; both internal and external to the Architecture Repository; as they evolve from generic Foundation Architectures to Organization-Specific Architectures. See also Chapter 6.
Foundation Architecture
An architecture of generic services and functions that provides a foundation on which more specific architectures and architectural components can be built. The TOGAF Foundation Architecture includes a Technical Reference Model . See also Chapter 13.
Gap
A statement of difference between two states. Used in the context of gap analysis; where the difference between the Baseline and Target Architecture is identified. See also Chapter 8.
Governance
The discipline of monitoring; managing; and steering a business to deliver the business outcome required. See also Chapter 9.
Information
Any communication or representation of facts; data; or opinions; in any medium or form; including textual; numerical; graphic; cartographic; narrative; or audio visual.
Information Technology
1. The lifecycle management of information and related technology used by an organization. 2. An umbrella term that includes all or some of the subject areas relating to the computer industry; such as Business Continuity; Business IT Interface; Business Process Modeling and Management; Communication; Compliance and Legislation; Computers; Content Management; Hardware; Information Management; Internet; Offshoring; Networking; Programming and Software; Professional Issues; Project Management; Security; Standards; Storage; Voice and Data Communications. Various countries and industries employ other umbrella terms to describe this same collection. 3. A term commonly assigned to a department within an organization tasked with provisioning some or all of the domains described in above. 4. Alternate names commonly adopted include Information Services; Information Management; etc.
Logical
An implementation-independent definition of the architecture; often grouping related physical entities according to their purpose and structure; for example; the products from multiple infrastructure software vendors can all be logically grouped as Java application server platforms.
Metadata
Data about data; of any sort in any media; that describes the characteristics of an entity.
Metamodel
A model that describes how and with what the architecture will be described in a structured way.
Method
A defined; repeatable approach to address a particular type of problem. See also Methodology.
Methodology
A defined; repeatable series of steps to address a particular type of problem; which typically centers on a defined process; but may also include definition of content. See also Method.
Model
A representation of a subject of interest. A model provides a smaller scale; simplified; and/or abstract representation of the subject matter. A model is constructed as a means to an end�. In the context of enterprise architecture; the subject matter is a whole or part of the enterprise and the end is the ability to construct views� that address the concerns of particular stakeholders; i.e.; their viewpoints� in relation to the subject matter. See also Stakeholder; View; and Viewpoint.
Modeling
A technique through construction of models which enables a subject to be represented in a form that enables reasoning; insight; and clarity concerning the essence of the subject matter.
Objective
A time-bounded milestone for an organization used to demonstrate progress towards a goal; for example; Increase Capacity Utilization by 30% by the end of 2009 to support the planned increase in market share�.
Physical
A description of a real-world entity. Physical elements in an enterprise architecture may still be considerably abstracted from Solution Architecture; design; or implementation views.
Reference Model
A reference model is an abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of an environment; and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment. A reference model is based on a small number of unifying concepts and may be used as a basis for education and explaining standards to a nonspecialist. A reference model is not directly tied to any standards; technologies; or other concrete implementation details; but it does seek to provide common semantics that can be usedunambiguously across and between different implementations. See also Chapter 13.
Repository
A system that manages all of the data of an enterprise; including data and process models and other enterprise information. Hence; the data in a repository is much more extensive than that in a data dictionary; which generally defines only the data making up a database.
Requirement
A quantitative statement of business need that must be met by a particular architecture or work package.
Segment Architecture
A detailed; formal description of areas within an enterprise; used at the program or portfolio level to organize and align change activity.
Solution Architecture
A description of a discrete and focused business operation or activity and how IS/IT supports that operation. A Solution Architecture typically applies to a single project or project release; assisting in the translation of requirements into a solution vision; high-level business and/or IT system specifications; and a portfolio of implementation tasks.
Solution Building Block
A candidate physical solution for an Architecture Building Block � e.g.; a Commercial Off-The-Shelf package � that is a component of the Acquirer view of the architecture. See also Chapter 11.
Solutions Continuum
A part of the Enterprise Continuum. A repository of re-usable solutions for future implementation efforts. It contains implementations of the corresponding definitions in the Architecture Continuum. See also Chapter 6.
Stakeholder
An individual; team; or organization with interests in; or concerns relative to; the outcome of the architecture. Different stakeholders with different roles will have different concerns. See also Chapter 10.
Strategic Architecture
A summary formal description of the enterprise; providing an organizing framework for operational and change activity; and an executive-level; long-term view for direction setting.
Target Architecture
The description of a future state of the architecture being developed for an organization. There may be several future states developed as a roadmap to show the evolution of the architecture to a target state.
Technical Reference Model
A structure which allows the components of an information system to be described in a consistent manner. See also Chapter 13.
Technology Architecture
The logical software and hardware capabilities that are required to support deployment of business; data; and application services. This includes IT infrastructure; middleware; networks; communications; processing; and standards. See also Chapter 7.
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